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( Original Title Page ) 

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The materials from which this work has been 
written are scanty. I am conscious that I have not 
been able to do Justice to it, and therefore crave the 
indulgence of the reader, I take this opportunity 
to tender my grateful thanks to my esteemed friend 
the Revd. Dr. K. M- Banerjee for the assistance he 
has rendered to me. T am also indebted to Mr- 
Colesworthy Grant for the si^estions he has made 
and the trouble he has taken as regards the illustra- 
tions. I may add that he rendersd valuable aid to 
the Hare Statue Committee. My best thanks are due 
to Mr. J. Sutcliffe for placing at my disposal the 
records of the Hindu College and manuscript of its 
history drawn up from the records which have since 
been destroyed. I am also grateful to the Govern- 
ment of Bengal, Dr. D. B. Smith, Principal of the 
Medical College, Baboo Aununda Kissen Bose, and 
the friends who have given their reminiscences of Mr. 

Dr. George Smith has kindly communicated the 
followiog particulars from Mr. ,Rust of the Union 
Bank of Scotland. 

David Hare never was a watchmaker in Aberdeen. 
His father was Watchmaker in London who 
married an Aberdeen lady. David visited Aberdeen 
before coming out to India to be introduced to 
his mother's relatives and that was his only visit 

to Aberdeen. David had three brothers, Joseph, a 
London merchant who long resided at 48 Bedford 
Square, Alexander, v/bo came to India after David 
where be is supposed to have died leaving a daughter 
Janet and John also went to India, returned with a 
eompetency and resided with his brother Joseph. He 
died leaving a daughter Rosalind who married Dr. 
B. Hodge of Sidmouth and left a daughter. 

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Bom in a village in Scotland in the year 1775, 
David Hare was brought up as a watch-maker and in 
the year 1800, at the agri of twentyfive, he came down 
to Calcutta. Watch-making was undoubtedly his 
business, but he was never engrossed in it. The 
study of the native society of Calcutta to which 
Hare had free access, was his main p re -occupation - 
He found a great friend in Rammohan Roy, was 
intimately associated with his circle and his famous 
"Atmiya Sabha," founded in 1815. From the progre- 
ssive movements launched under the supreme leadership 
of Rammohan Roy — against the hoary superstitions, 
the monstrous idolatry, the most inhuman custom of 
the Suttee rite and in favour of the dissemination of 
the Western system of scientiiic education — David 
Hare drew his inspirations and discovered the mission 
of his life. In the crucible of these mighty socio- 
cultural movements, watch-maker David Hare was 
moulded into an ardent educationist and a veteran 
social reformer. His interest shifted from the intricate 
mechanism of watch to far more intricate mi 
of society, from the study of the mechanic; 
to the stjdy Of the dynamics of 'Humanity.' 

David Hare decided, therefore, to leave his 
to a man of business, whiqh he discovered, 
he was not. He made over his business t 

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Gray in the year 1820 with a public declaration. * 
He was convinced during his intimate association with 
our countrymen that nothing but education was 
needed "to render the Hindus happy" and ne, 
therefore, decided once for ail to exert bis humble 
abilities "to further the interests of IndiA." t The 
biography of David Hare is therefore valuable not 
Only as the history of achievements of a pioneer educa- 
tionist, but also as the history of the beginning of 
modem education in our country. 


British rulers were not in the least concerned with 
the social and educational problems of India in the 
first phase of their imperialist adventures. The East 
India Company, for nearly half a century after the 
Battle of Plassey in 1757, was almost completely 
occupied with the task of consolidating their power 
over the entire country. Calcutta Madrasah and 
Benares Sanskrit College were established in 1781 and 
1792, for the sole purpose of bringing out a band of 
Pundits and Maulavis capable of interpreting natire 
laws and customs in administrative and judicial 
matters. In the year 1800, the Fort William College 
of Calcutta was also established with the purpose of 
teaching Bengali Language to young Fritish civilians. 

* Mr. rearychaiid Mitra's statettieut that Mr. Hare made 
over his business to Mr. Gray before 1816, is incorrect— The 
(Jovt, Gazette (Supplement) January 6,1820, 

; The Government Gazette, 2!at Feb., 1831, 


Dewan Ramkamal Sen in the preface to his famous "A 
Diciionary in English and Bengali" says in this 
connection :• 

"In 1800 the College of Fort William was instituted 
and the study of the Bengalee language was maije 
imperative on young civilians. Persons versed in the 
language were invited by Government and employed 
in the instruction of the young writers. From this 
time forward writing Bengalee correctly may be said 
to have begun in Calcutta ; a number of books was 
supplied by the Serampore Press, which set the 
example of printii^ works in this and other eastern 
languages....! must acknowledge her^ that whatever 
has been done towards the revival of the Bengalee 
language must be attributed to that excellent man Dr. 
Carey and his colleagues. . . .". 

The need for the study of the Bengali language 
was keenly felt by the British rulers. HaJhed's "A 
Code of Gentoo Laws" (1776) and "A Grammar of the 
Bengalee Language" (1778) were not sufficient for the 
purpose. Serious efforts must be made for the study 
of a language which, in the words of Dr. Carey, "is 
spoken from the Bay Of Bengal in the South to the 
mountains of Bootan in the north, and from the 
borders of Ramgur to Arakan". Dr. Carey rightly 
viewed the importance of the ■ Bengalee Language in the 
preface to his "A Grammar of the Bengalee Language" 
(1801) : 

• R«mkamal Sen : "A r^ictioiiary in English St. Bengali" 

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"Bengal, as the seat of the British Government in 
India, and the centre of a great port of the commerce 
of the East, must be viewed as a country of very 
great importance. Its soil is fertile, its population 
great, and the necessary intercourse subsisting between 
its inhabitants and those of other countries who visit 
its ports, is rapidly increasing. A knowledge of 
tha language of this couutry must therefore be a very 
desirable object". ' 

In fact, before 1813, there were only sporadic 
efforts to introduce modem education by missionary 
groups and the East India Company. The Christian 
missionaries were primarily inspired by a proselytizing 
spirit to spread Christianity amOng the Indian people, 
and the educational institutions started by them gave 
religious instructions in Christianity. Though their 
principal aim in starting these institutions was religious 
the missionaries played objectively an important 
historic role in spreading modem secular education 
among our countrymen. The intoduction of" 
modern education by the East India Company was 
primarily motivated by the political -administrative and 
economic needs of British imperialists. It had, there- 
fore, its limitations. It could neither spread among 
the people, nor coiild its foundations be laid strongly 
on modern scientific basis. It was simply turning out 
English knowing Pundits and IVIaulavis and Bengali- 
Hi ndoosthani -knowing English civilians for filling up 
the administrative apparatus of the British rule- The 
Charter Act of 1813 marks a turning point in the 

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history of education in India, Under it, the Company 
for the first time assumed State responsibility for 
education and it provided that "a sum of not less 
ttian'one lac of rupees in each year shall be set apart 
and applied to the revival and impro\ement of 
literature and the encouragement of learned natives 
of India, and for the instruction and promotion 
of a knowledge of the Sciences among Ae inhabi- 
tants of the British territories in India..." ( East 
India Act of 1813, Sec. 43 '. The Act was there, 
but nothing signilicant was done towards the im- 
plementation of its provisions during the nest ten 


The third powerful agency, other than the 
Christian missionaries and the E. I. Co., in spreading 
modem education in India, has been the Indians 
themselves. Raja Rammohan Roy was the pioneer 
of this progressive modem education in India. But 
Davrd Hare could equally and rightly claim to be 
a pioneer of modern education in this country. 
And though by birth a native of Scotland, he 
could claim to be an Indian for his life-long 
social and educational activities and his intimate 
association with our countrymen. None can deny 
his claims, founded as they are On unassailable 
historical facts. Distortion Or ignorance of facts 
connot minimise the role of David Hare as a promoter 
of modern education in this country. 

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Attempts, of course, have been made to minimise 
and ignore the role of David Hare as a pioneer of 
modem education. But History has shattered all such 
attempts and_ given David Hare his due. In the year 
1815, Raja Rammohan Roy entertained a few friends 
at his house and suggested the establishment of 
"Atmiya Sabha" for improving the moral conditions 
of our countrymen. The Raja was animated with a 
fervent desire to lift the society from the swamp of 
idolatry and supersitions to a higher moral plane and 
he was convinced that the Brahma Sabha by preaching 
the Vedanta system of religion could serve his purpose. 
David Hare differed from his views and suggested as 
an amendment the establishment of a College. It was 
Hare's considered opinion that education of native 
youths in Western literature and science would be a 
far more effective means of enlightening their under- 
standing and of purgii^ their minds from pernicious 
cants. Without real education and rational under- 
standing of truth, no lasting moral improvement of 
society is possible. The proposal was, of course, en- 
thusiastically accepted by Raja Rammohan Roy. Mr. 
Hare himself soon after prepared a paper containing 
proposals for the establishment of the College and the 
paper was handed over to Sir Edward Hyde East by 
Baboo Baidyanath Mukherjee, a distinguished native of 
Calcutta and a close associate of Rammohan. Sir 
E. H. East offered bis most cordial co-operation in the 
establishment of an institution "for the education of 
native youth". He called a meeting of dist- 



inguished native gentlemen and pundits at his 
house and it was resolved "that an establishment 
be formed for the education of native youth". David 
Hare was, therefore, the real originator and promoter 
of Hindu College. The Calcutta Christian Observer, 
in its first three issues of June 1832, published a 
series of articlees entitled "A Sketch of the 
Origin, Rise and Progress of the Hindoo College", 
and silenced all controversies raging at that time 
. about the originator of Hindoo College. It stated 
boldly and clearly that "the merit of originating the 
Hindoo College must in justice be ascribed to Mr. 

The Hindu College was opened in the year 1817, 
And here, in this Hindu College, by De'rozip and 
other teachers, a group of young men of Bengal was 
baptised with the teachings of modern science and 
social philosophy. It produced Dakhinaranjan 
Mookherjee, Ram Gopal Ghose, Tarachand 
Chakravarty, Krishnamohan Banerjee and others, the 
brilliant flowers of 'Young Bengal', the moulders of 
'Modem Bengal'. The tiee of education had already 
taken root and the blossoms everyone could see around. 
By these students of Hindu College, a powerful 
and gigantic social movement was unleashed in Bengal 
the repercussions of which were felt all over India. 
The social fermentation caused by its tremendous 
ups and downs, its mighty waves of dynamic ideo- 
logies rising in crescendo ,and occasionally bursting 
forth in frightful excesses, sending cold tremors to 

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hollow spines of the seasoned conservatives, ultimately 
cooled down to a synthetic assimilation of Western 
and Oriental cultures in the latter half of the nine- 
teenth century. David Hare's original idea of 
establising an educational institution for imparting 
modern English education to the youngmen of Bengal 
as the best means for social and moral upliftment, 
was bearing fruits. Hare's dreams, at last, were 
coming true. 

The members of 'Young Bengal' presented an' 
address of welcome on 17th February, 1831, signed by 
Dakshinaranjan Mukherjee and 564 other youngmen, 
which is worth reproducing here along with Mr, 
Hare's answer to the address : * 

Calcutta, 17th Feb. 1831. 


David Hare, Esqr. 
Dear Sir, 

Kindness, even when slightly evinced, excites a 
feelii^ of thankfulness in the minds of those 
who benefit by it. What, then, must be the senti- 
ments which animate the many who have enjoyed the 
happiness of receivii^ at your hands the best gift that 
it is possible for one thinking being to bestow upon 
another— Education i It has been the misfortune and 

" Mr. Pearychand Mitra could not gei this welcome 
address and Mr, Hare's answer for publication When he 
wrote Mr, David Hare's biography. It was published in 
the 'Government Gaiette' of 2lBt March, 1831. 

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reproach of many an age to permit its best 
benefactors to go to the grave without 
one token of its respect or gratitude for their 
endeavours. Warned by their example it is our desire 
to avoid it, and to let it be known that, however your 
eminent services to this country may be overlooked 
by other, they are appreciated ' by those who have 
experienced their advantages. We have, therefore, 
resolved upon soliciting the favour of your sitting for 
your portrait — a request with which we earnestly hope 
you will have no objection to comply. Far be it 
from us to suppose that so slight a token of respect 
is adequate to the merit of your philanthropic exer- 
tions ; but it will be gratification to our feelings if 
we are permitted to keep among us a representation 
of the man who has breathed a new life into Hindu 
Society, who has made a foreign land the land of his 
adoption, who has voluntarily become the friend of 
3 friendless people, and set an example to his own 
countrymen and ours, to admire which is fame, and to 
imitate immortality. 

Waiting your kind compliance with the lequest 
contained in this address, and heartily wishing you 
health and strength to pursue the career which you 
have so long maintained. 

We have the pleasure to be, dear Sir, 
Your most obedient servants, 

{ Signed by Dakinaranjan Mookerjee and 564 other 
yOung native gentlemen ). 

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Gentlemen : In answer to the address you have 
just presented to me, I beg to apologize for the 
feelings that overcome me ; and I earnestly request 
you to bear with me. A few years after my arrival 
in this country, I was enabled to discover during my 
intercourse with several native gentlemen, thai nothing 
but education was requisite to render the Hindoos 
happy, and I exerted my humble abilities to further 
the interests of India ; and with the sanction and 
support of the Government, and of a few leading men 
of your community I endeavoured to promote the 
cause of education. 

Gentlemen : I have now the gratification to ob- 
serve, that the tree of education has already taken 
root ; the blossoms I see around me ; and if it be 
left to grow up for ten years more, it will acquire such 
a strength, that it will be impossible to eradicate It. 
To maintain and to continue the happy career already 
begun is entirely left to your own exertions. Your 
countrymen expect it from you, for they look upon 
you as their reformers and instructors. It remains for 
you to gain that object, and to show the inhabitants 
of other countries in what manner they may render 
themselves useful. 

When I observe the multitude assembled " to offer 
me this token of their regard, when I see that the most 
respectable and Icamed native gentlemen have flocked 
around me to present this address, it is most flattering 


to me, for it expresses the unfeigned sentiments of 
their heart. I cannot contain myself, gentlemen. It 
is a proud day to me. I will preserve this token 
of your sentiments of gratitude towards me unto my 
latest breath ; I wiH bequeath it to my posterity as a 
treasure which will inspire them with emulation to do 
good to their brethren. 

Gentlemen :■ Were I to consult my private feel- 
ings, I should refrain frOm complying with your 
request. It lias always been a rule with me never to 
bring myself into public notice, but lo fill a private 
station in life. When I see, however, that the sons of 
the most worthy members of the Hindu Community 
have come in a body to do me honour — when I observe 
that the address is signed by most of those with whom 
I am intimate, and whose feelings will be gratified if I 
sit for my portrait, I cannot but comply with your 
17th Feb., I83I. { Signed ) David Hare 

This welcome address and Mr. Hare's answer to 
it amply justify Mr. Hare's claim as a piOneer of 
modern education in this country. 

Mr. Hare's educational activities did not end with 
the foundation of the Hindu College in 1817, with 
the unique service he rendered to its progress as a 
Visitor first and one of its Directors afterwards. He 
was closely associated with the "School Book Society", 
founded in 1817, for preparing and publishing textbooks 

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in English and Bengali and with "School Society" 
founded in 181S, for establishing English and Bengali 
Schools in Calcutta. He started, managed and per- 
sonally supervised "Simla School", "Arpuli School" 
and "Pataldanga School", establishfed mainly for the 
purpose of giving free education to poor students. 
Hare's love for the cause of education is now history. 
But Hare's love and alFection for students, his fatherly 
care for the poor boys, are facts, narrated still now 
like popular tales in every hearth and home of 


Hare never stood aloof from the cross-currents of 
social movements in his life-time. He was never swept 
away by any partisan's zeal. Neither the progressives 
led by Raja Rammohan Roy, nor the Conservatives led 
by Raja Radha Kanta Deb, could drag David Hare 
directly into the vOrtex of their movements. Mare 
had, of course, pronounced sympathy for the 
progressives. He was closely associated with the 
Academic Association, founded by De'rozro, and was 
a patron of the Society for the Acquisition of General 
Knowledge, the two leading cultural organisations 
of progressive youngmen in his time. But that did 
not prevent Hare from working hard and collaborating 
sincerely with Raja Radhakanto Deb in "School 
Society" for the furtherance of the cause of education. 

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Hare also did not subscribe fully to the views propa- 
gated by the two schools of thought dominant in his 
time among the British educationists, regarding the type 
of education to be imparted to the Indians. The first 
school of thought, known as the Anglicists of which 
Macaulay was the chief protagonist, advocated "the 
substitution of Western culture for the Indians" and 
set, as the ideal of education, the creation of a class 
of Indians who would be "Indian in blood and 
colour but English in tastes, in opinions, in morals 
and in intellect." This school stood for English as 
the medium of education and it was strongly 
supported by the missionaries, the younger officials of 
the Company and by the progressive Indians like Raja 
Rammohan Roy, Dwarkanath Tagore and others. The 
second school, known as Orientalists, while in favour 
of dissemination of Western sciences and knowledge 
among the Indians, however, strongly advocated the 
encouragement of Sanskrit nnd Arabic literature. The 
protagonists of the second school were split into two 
groups over the question of the medium of instruc- 
tion- One group; strong in Bengal, led by the views 
of Hastii^s and Minto, argued in favour of classical 
languages like Sanskrit and Arabic, and the other 
group, strong in Bombay, led by Munro and Elphin- 
stone, held that Western education could reach the 
masses only if it was imparted in Vernaculars. David 
Hare watched with keen interest these clashes of rival 
ideologies, and exerted all his might to evolve a 
synthesis out of if, where East and West could meet, 

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could give and take. The highest aim of education 
is to make patent what is latent in the people of a 
country and Hare believed that for the true 
realisation of this aim education must oi^anically and 
naturally grow from within- Transplantation or 
grafting of a foreign culture into the traditional culture 
of a country might be necessary for the transfusion of 
life into it in times of decay, but this must be done 
on the natural soil of its cultural traditions. This is 
especially true in the case of a country like India, 
whose cultural matrix, pattern and tradition can never 
be ignored. The history of India is the history of 
a series of "accultu rat ions", the history of striking 
assimilations and syntheses of clashing culture-com- 
plexes. Hare realised that English culture must tread 
along this historic course of synthesis and assimilatioa, 
if it wants to take root here in this country. Hare 
devoted his life to fulfil this aim and histoiy proved 
afterwards that Hare was right and the Anglicists and 
Orientalists, the Conservatives and Extremists were 
either totally wrong or partially right. 


Beyond the iieid of education, Hare fought for 
liberty of Press, for justice and humanity against the 
forcible transportation of Indian coolies to 
Mauritius and Bourbon. A champion of the cause of 
modern education, a harbinger of ihe dawn of "The 
Age of Reason" and "Renaissance" in country flound- 

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ering in the filthy swamp of superstitions, a valiant 
fighter for the cause of liberty, truth and justice, 
David Hare, the watch-maker of Scotland, the pro- 
moter and pioneer of modern education in our country, 
died On 1st June, 1842. Teachers, students and 
social reformers of Bengal in particular and Indian 
people in general, wept and sobbed for him like 
orphans after his death. David Hare is dead and gone 
but the ideals and ills which he battled for and against, 
throughout the best period of his life, will live for 
generations to come. Twelve years after his death, 
the Wood's Education Dispatch of 1854, the Magna 
Charta of Indian education, laid the foundation of the 
modern educational structure in India, and with it 
ended the first phase of its history, the crown and 
glory of which was David Hare. The subsequent 
history of education in India for more than one 
hundred years is the history of progressive realisation 
of the great educational ideal for which Hare fought 
and died. We are still carrying Hare's heritage for- 
ward and the nationalist India of today has pledged 
herself anew to materialise the dreams of David Hare 
in the realm of education. More than hundred years 
ago shouted the boys — "me poor boy, have pity on 
me, me take in your school" — chasing Hare's palan- 
quin on the streets of Calcutta in College Street area. 
The palanquin has vanished with Hare from the streets 
-of Calcutta, and todaj^it is not possible for boys to 
chase the streamlined automobiles of Ministers of 
education- But if the Ministers and educationists of 

■ free India care to chase the ideas of David Hare and 
realise them, a really new and free India will be 

Calcutta, 1st June, 1949, 
On the occasion of I07th death 
anniversary of David Hare. 


Peary Chand Mitra was a descendant of the famous 
Mitra family of NimtoHah, the founder of which was 
Babu Gai^adhar Mitra, who had business connection 
with Babu Ram Dulal Dey, the great millionaire of 
Calcutta. Gangadhar was a son-in-law of Madan 
Mohan Datta, one of the celebrated descendants of 
Gobinda Saran Datta, the founder of the old Hatkhola 
Datta family of Calcutta. He had three sons. Ram 
Narayan Mitra, Nimai Charan Mitra and Nandalal 
Mitra, of whom the eldest Ram Narayan owned a big 
zemindari, speculated largely in Government Securities 
and was a friend of Raja Ranunohan Roy. It was he 
who with the help of Radha Mohan Sen, published 
the musical work "Saj^it Tarangim". Ram Narayan 
had five sons, Madhusudan, Shyam Chand, Nabin 
Chand, Peary Chand and Kishory Chand. 

Peary Chand was bom on the §th Srabao, 
1221 B.S., corresponding to 22nd of July of the year 
1814. He received his early education from a Gum- 
mahashaya and a Munshi appointed b^ his father, and 
entered the Hindu College on the 7th July, 1829. 

Here he was taught by De'rozio, the greatest teacher 
and philosopher of modem Bengal. Not long after he 
left College in December 1835, he was appointed Sub- 
Librarian of the Calcutta Public Library, and Sir John 
Peter Grant while recommending him for the' post, 
wrote : 

"Peary Chand Mitra was a student of the Hindu 
College when I gave lectures there upon Jurisprudence 
which he attended and I have known him ever since,... 
He is an admirable English scholar, has engaging 
manners and good temper, so far as I can judge. He 
has correct mora) principles, a great attachment to 
literary pursuits so far as his means have extended and 
in my opinion, is likely to make a good teacher of 
what he already knows and to go on in the acquire- 
mestt of more knowledge if he has access to books. He 
is already much better informed than most young men 
of his age and nation." 

As a businessman, Peary chand rose to the peak of 
success in his life. He speculated largely in export- 
import business with Kala Chand Seth and Tara 
Chand Chakravarty, his partners in "Kala Chand Seth 
& Co,". After the death of Kala Chand in 1849 and 
retirement of Tara Chand from business in 1844, 
Peary Chand engaged in mercantile business on his 
own account and earned a good deal of money. He 
was highly respected by the business community of 
his times, especially by British businessmen. He was 
a director of Great Eastern Hotel Co. Ltd., Port 
Canning Land Investment Co., Howrah Docking Co. 

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Ltd. etc., all British firms. He was also an expert in 
Tea business and became Director of Bengal Tea Co., 
Darang Tea Co. Ltd. and other tea and Joint Stock 

Societies and associations were the signs of the 
time, and Peary Chand took initiative in founding 
many of them. He held responsible positions in 
almost all of the leading Societies and Cultural 
Associations of his time. He was the first Secretary 
to the British Indian Society, the first Secretary to 
the Bethune Society, the founder of the Hare 
Anniversary which was held every year on the Ist 
June for nearly forty years. He was one of ihe 
foundation members of the British Indian Association 
and used to fake active part in its aifeira. He vras 
Honorary Secretary to the Bengal Social Science 
Association for many years after its foundation, a 
Secretary to the Society for the Acquisition of General 
knowledge, one of the oldest members of the Agri- 
Horticultural Society, the School Book Society, the 
District Charitable Societies and the Calcutta Public 
Library. He was a member of the Vernacular 
Literature Committee, a Fellow of Calcutta University, 
a Justice of the Peace and Honorary Magistrate for 
Calcutta. In 1868 he was appointed a member of the 
Bengal Legislative Council and helped in passing the 
Act for the Prevention Of Cruelty to Animals. On 
the establishment of the Society (C. S. P. C. A.) for 
this purpose he was its first Secretary and then one 
of its Vice-Presidents. He was a member of the 

Calcutta Corporation under the Act of 1863, ITiough 
not a registered BrahmO, he fraternised with the 
leaders of the Brahmo Samaj. In advanced years he 
became first a spiritualist and later a theosophist, but 
spiritualism or theosophy was never his preoccupat'on, 
as he himself had confessed in the preface to his book 
"On the Soul." "In 1860, I lost my wife, which 
convulsed me much. I took to the study of spiritual- 
ism which, I confess, I would not have thought of 
otherwise, nor relished its charms." 

Peary Chand was bom in an age remarkable for 
the spirit of enquiry, of adventure, of free enterprise 
in the economic and intellectual fields, an "age of 
Renaissance" in Bengal. And he responded splendidly 
to the call of the New Age. His most revolutionary 
contributions were in the field of Bengali literature. 
He, as the author of "Alaler Gharer Dulal", is the 
father of modern Bengali novel. In it, he experimented 
boldly with a literary form, the novel, the representa- 
tive form of modern literature, arid with a literary 
medium, the spoken vernacular language. He liberated 
Bengali prose from the shackles of Sanskrit Grammar 
and Rhetoric and thereby set it free from the clutches 
of pundits. Bengali literature and language became 
for the first time a literature and language of 
democracy, of common men and matters, the 
representative literature of the new age. For this 
achievement alone, if not for others, the name of 
Peary Chand will be remembered as long as Bengali 
literature will live an^ Bengali language will bespoken. 


From his early youth Peary Chand had a taste 
for letters and was connected with the Press, contri- 
buting regularly to Gnananweshan, the Bengal Spectator, 
the Bengal Harkara, the EngUsman, the Indian Field, 
the Patriot, and the Calcutta Review. He started the 
Bengali Magazine Masik Patrika. His life-sketch 
of David Hare in English and Bengali was much 
praised at the time. This h'fe-sketch contains much 
valuable information and it is a history of the 
evolution of modern education in Bengal, in the 
background of the prevailii^ social conditions, written 
by one of the most eminent men of letters of the 
nineteenth century. 

Digiiizcdt* Google 



Hare came out here as a watchmaker— His paj 
intimacy with Rammohun Roy 

Miss Carpenter's account of his brother and niece 

Hare's access to the Native Society and 
intimacy with the natives 

English education in Calcutta 

State of Bengali education here- Hare formed 
estimate of the educational wants 

His move for an English School— He sees Sir 
Hyde East, who calls a meeting of th; leading 
natives for the establishment of a College 

Rammohun Roy's connection with it objected 
to by the orthodox natives 

Hare induced Rammphun Roy to be unconn- 
ected with the College 

Meeting held 14th May 1816— Speech of the 

Hindu College established at another meeting 
— Committee &c. appointed 

Hindu Collie opened 2l>th January 1817 . . 

Buddinath Mookerjec's speech 

College removed to Chitpore and thence to 
Feringhee Komut Bose's house, its insuffi- 
cient income, Hare's made saving 

Government intended to establish a Sanskrit 
College in Calcutta, Rammohun Roy's 
letter against this measure 


One building for the Hindu and Sanskrit 
Colleges — Hare gave up his land for the 
benefit of the former. Inscription of the 
building . . .. 14 

Building completed, the Hindu College lost 
money, application for support forwarded 
to Govt., which wanted Jo exercise control 
— Protest of some native managers . . 15 

Committee agreed to the exercise of control 
over funds by Dr. W. H. Wilson — Hare 
appointed Hony. member of the Committee 
—Donations of Rajah Buddinath Roy, 
Hurrynath Roy and Kalee Sunker Ghoshal 16 

Derozio's teachings— Academic Association . . 17 

Hare a regular visitor of it — "Parthenon" set 
up by Derozio's students stopped — Effects 
of Derozio's teachings. The Managing 
Committee passed orders . . . . 18 

Clergymen began to lecture on Christianity- 
Committee's order, meeting called to 
remove Derozio — its deliberations . . 18 

Derozio removed — Committee withdrew order 
as to attending lectures — DerOzio was about 
to be struck by D'Anseleme who insulted 
Hare and he bore it quietly . . 19 

Derozio's correspondence with Dr. Wilson on 
the subject of his removal and the charges 
brought against him . . 20 

Derozio edited "East Indian" and continued 

his teaching — the names of his pupils . . 31 

Coog Ic 

Young Calcutta — Krishnamohun Bancrjea's 
"persecuted" Russickrishna MuUick— 
Duckinarui^jun Mookerjea, Ramgopaul 
Ghose, Madhubchunder Mullick, Govind- 
chunder Bysack 

K. M. Ganerjee and Moheahchunder Ghose 
embraced Christianity — K. M, Banerjee's 
sermon on the death of Mohcsh — Huro- 
chunder Ghose as a munsiff 

Amritalal Mittra — Ramtonoo Lahiri 

Radhanath Seckdhar, Tarachand Chuckerburttee 
Chunder Saikhur Deb . . . - ■ ■ 

Shibchunder Deb — Derozio's lectures on 
metaphysics at Hare's School — Native 
Meeting for voting tesiimonial to Hare 

P:esentation of address to Hare — His reply- 
Hare's portrait 

General Committee of Puplic Instruction — 
object of appointment of — Despatch of 
the Court of Directors as to what should 
be taught — Favorable Report on the Hindu 
College by Committee of Public Instruction 

Bentinck and Auckland's Education minutes 
and the Education Desjjatch of 1854 

Hare's letters to Halifax 

Radhakant on the Hindu College . . 

Dwarkanath's testimony as to what founded 
the Hindu College 

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Kerr's account of the Hindu College — J, C. C. 

Sutherland's Report on Hare — minute of 

the Committee of Public Instruction On 

Lord Auckland's enquiry . . 
Kerr's notice of Hare 
Kissenmohun Mullick's notice of Hare — 

Hare's services to the Medical College . . 


Calcutta School Book Society . . . . 52 

The Calcutta School Society, its labors . . 52—56 

Arpooly School under Hare . , . . 57 

Female education 57 

Hare laid stress on the proficiency in Bengali — 
working of the School Book Society and 
School Society . . . . . , 59 

Institution for (he support and management 
of native Schools, Hare a supporter of it— 
His appearance at the School Book 
Society's Meeting , . . . 65 

His letter to that Society — His speech at its 

meeting . , . . . . . , 67 

Notice of Hare in Radhakant's life . . ... 68 

Kissenmohun Mullick's sketch of early 
vernacular education in Calcutta and notice 
of Hare's labors . . . , 69 

D,g,i zed b, Google 

Hare President of the Academic Association . . 72 

Society for the Acquisition of General 
knowledge — Hare its Honorary visitor — 
Its publications . , . . . . 73 

Fatshala near the Hindu College — its foundation 

stone laid by Hare . . . . 74 

Notice of it by the Bengal Spectator . . 74 


Hare's interest in the Public Meeting of 1835 
to repeal press regulations, remove 
restraints on public meeting &c. — His 

He acted as a member of the Committee 
appointed by a public meeting for securing 
trial of civil cases by jury 

His motion at the public meeting for peti- 
tioning against Act XI,, His liberation of 
the coolies for Mauritius 

His evidence before the Committee appointed 
by the public meeting. Their Report 

His move in the petition for the use of the 
English language in the mofussil courts. 
The reply of Government 

His attendance at the public meeting to 
cO-operate with the British India Society, 
His connection with different societies 

Digiiizcdt* Google 

Hare had an attack of cholera ^ , . . 80 

He died on the 1st June 1842— His funeral- 
Inscription on the tomb . , . , 80 — 81 
Notice of Hare by the Bengal Spectator and 

Friend of India . . . . 81—88 


Public meeting at the Medical College to 
vote a testimonial to Hare— Statue voted, 
Commit'ee appointed— Inscription on the 
statue, mural tablet .. .. .. 88—91 

Hare Anniversary meetings .. ..91 — 118 

Hare Prize Fund .. .. .. 118 

Notice of Hare's services by the section of 
the Council of Education and by His 
Honor in Council . . 120 

Notice of Hare by the Lieutenant Governor 

of Bengal .. .. .. .. 121 



1. C. Grant Esq, — Hare's Extraordinary 
power of walking and simple diet . . 121 

2. Baboo Rajnarain Bose— Hare's vexation 
for not visiting sick boys — He rubbed boys 

with his own hand . . . . . . 122 

Digiiizcdt* Google 

3. Baboo Gobind Chunder Dutt-'Hare's 
fondness of children — He discouraged, 
flogging, Hare's courage, liberation of 
coolies, Hare's benevolence and funeral. . 

His religion . . .. .. 123 

4. Baboo RamtonOo Lahtree — Hare's services 

to the Medical College, visiting the sic^ . . 127 

5. Baboo Chunder Saikher Deb — Actii^ the 
Gocd Samaritan, his labours for the Hindu 
College, always ready to admit poor boys 129 

6. Chunder Coomar Moitri — Visiting the sick 132 

7. Baboo Shibchiinder Deb — Not partial to 
the boys of his school, . encouraging suc- 
cessful pupils . . . 133 

8. Baboo Gopeekissen Mitter — His labors not 
to allow the boys to get vicious — the reason 
vihy he was apparently partial to the sons 

of the rich .. .. .. 134 

9. Nundlall Mitter— Hare did good to the 
helpless .. .. 136 

10. Baboo Sreeram Chatterjea — Hare spent 
lai^e sums of money for our education. 
Medical College, Hare's watchfulness, 
Hare's charity, his vigilance, labors to im- 
prove penmanship, and simple diet .. 137 

Hare's house full of visitors .. .. 142 

C _, - 


What he did daily— Medioil College— Dr. 

Bromley's testimony to his services H2 — 143 

His mode of inspection of the College &c. his 

care of the boys, the aid rendered to them 144 
His kindness equally appreciated, accounted for 144-145 
His difficulties .. .. .. ..147 

How he behaved 

His character 

The effects of his good acts . . . . 149 



A. Rules of the Hindu College. 

B. The Hindu College and its Founder, by Btbco 
Kessory Chand Mitira. 

Digilizcdb, Google 

I^ yjiograpkical Q) Lick 



Dr. Johnson says that "history may be framed 
from permanent monuments and records, but lives can 
only be written from personal knowledge, which is 
growii^ every day less, and in a short time is lost 
for ever." David Hare was bom in Scotland in 
1775. He was brought up as a Watch-maker, 
and at the age of twenty five, or in 1800, came 
to Calcutta. In those days there was not much 
competition, and in a few years David Hare acquired 
competence. Before 1816 he made ovtc his business 
to Mr. E. Grey ; and one of the newspapers of the 
day, noticing the change, wrote, "old hair turned grey". 
Hare found an intimate friend in Ram Mohun Roy- 
He had begun to spread theism, denounce idolatry, 
was moving heaven and earth for the abolition of the 
suttee rite, and advocating the dissemination of Ei^Iish 


( 2 ) 

education, as the means for enlightening his country- 
men. Ram Mohun Roy's circle consisted of Dwarlta- 
nath Tagore, Kristomohun Mojoomder, Callinath 
Munshi and latterly Chunder ■ Saikur Oeb and 
Tarachand Chuck roburttee. Of Mr. Hare's brothers, 
we have some information from Miss Carpenter's 
"Last days in England of Ram Mohun Roy." She 
says "Mr. David Hare, an Englishman of Calcutta, of 
well known and great respectability, from his earnest 
attachment lo the Rajah, had urged his brothers in 
Bedford Square to do everything in their power for 
him ; and specially to render him those services he was 
sure to need in a land so different from his own, and 
to protect him from those arts and inconvenieiices to 
which his unsuspecting nature and ignorance of our 
customs might expose him- With great difficulty they 
at last prevailed upon him, some months after his 
arrival, to accept a home in their house ; and when 
he went to France for a few weeks, one of them 
accompanied him to Paris, where he was more than 
once at the table of Louis Phillipe." 

Miss Carpenter states, that in September 1833 
Ram Mohun Roy arrived at Stapleton Grove, near 
Bristol, "accompanied by Miss Hare, the daughter 
of his late esteemed friend Mr, David Hare, of 
Calcutta." Miss Hare was not the daughter of David 
Hare, who was never married, but was his niece. 
Mr. Amott says in the Athenwum that the Hare family 
"discharged the duties of hospitality towards him 
(the Rajah), ever since his arrival in England, with a 

D:,-:c.Jt, Google 

( 3 ) 

kindness, delicacy and entire disinterestedness, v;hich 
are honorable to the English character." 

During the Rajah's illness. Miss Hare took great 
care of him, and often read the Bible to. him. John 
Hare, Joseph Hare, and James Hare were present, 
with others, at the interment of Ram Mohun Roy, 
on the 18th October, 1833. 

There are men whose attention is engrossed with 
Only mundane objects. What leads to wealth, fame, 
honor and power, is generally thought of, and the 
best of the energies is directed towards that end. 
The men who labour for the good of others— practising 
self abnegation, suffering privation, and blushing to 
find it fame, may be looked upon as gi^els, in as much 
as their example conduces to the spiritual developement 
of those who come in contact with them or read their 

Hare was not an important member of the republic 
of letters, but he possessed strong good common 
sense. He understood well how to beat about the 
bush, and put matters in train so as to secure the 
accomplishment of the object. 

The first impetus to Howard's philanthrophy was 
his own imprisonment with others "in a filthy dun- 
geon," after having been captured by a French pri- 
vateer. Hare's determination as to his future career 
was from his study of the native society of Calcutta, 
to which he Had free access. He formed the acquain- 
tance of the leading members of native society, saw 
them occasionally, was present at the natches, tamashas, 


( * ) 

I their children, presented them with toys, and 
thus gradually made a favorable impression on them- 

He was for some time employed in identifying 
himself with the Hindus. His sympathy with them 
was gradually intensiiied. Their rejoicing was his 
rejoicii^ — their sorrow was his sorrow. A man of 
warm love and boundless benevolence always seeks for 
a field, and such is the order of Providence that the 
response is quickly made. The Hindus of Calcutta 
were the field for the exercise of Hare's benevolence. 

The Supreme Court was established in 1794, which 
gave an impetus to the study of the English lai^uage. 
It was a privilege to be an attorney's cleit. He picked 
up a few technical expressions and when he made use 
of them, he was dreaded. 

Ram Ram Misri was the first English scholar. He 
became a tutor, and in Ram Narain Misri he had a 
scholar and a lawyer, though one Anand Ram possessed 
a latter acquaintance with loords, which in those days 
was as high an honor as m. a. Schools were in course 
of lime established by Ram Mohun Napit, Krishna 
Mohun Basu, Bhobun Dutt, Shiboo Dutt, Arratoon 
Peters, Sherburn &c., but the want of suitable books 
was much felt. Those in use were, Thomas Dyce's 
Spelling, School-master, Arabian Nights, Pleasing 
Tales &c. The study of the Bengali langus^e 
was also in a state of stagnation. We had Chaitanya 
Charitamrita, Mansa Mangola, Dhurma Gaun, 
Mahabharut, Ramayan (abridged), Gooroo Duckhina, 
Chundy, Annada Mungal, and Vidyasundur. But 


( S ) 

there were no elcmeatary books and hence there wis 
great difficulty in learning the Bengali lar^uagc 
correctly. The books we had were read as pastime, 
and Bengali boys were brought up in ciphering, 
letter writing, and Zemindari accounts. Hare formed 
a correct estimate of the educational wants of the 
Hindus and determined that there should be English 
education, vernacular education, and the supply of 
good English and vernacular books, on the progressive 
scale. He therefore directed his attention in the 
supply of these desiderata. We will first notice his 
labours in connection with the Hindu College, although 
he worked simultaneously for the promotion of 
vernacular education and the supply of books. 

The first move he made was in attending, unin- 
vited, a meeting called by Ram Mohun Roy and his 
friends for the purpose of establishing a society, cal- 
culated to subvert idolatry. Hare submitted that the 
establishment of an English school would materially 
serve their cause. They all acquiesced in the strength 
of Hare's position, but did not carry out his sugges- 
tion. Hare therefore waited on Sir Edward Hyde 
Easti the chief justice, of the Supreme Court, who 
had taken his seat on the 11th November 1813. Sir 
Hyde East gave him an audience, heard all that he had 
.to say, and promised to think on the matter. Buddi 
Nath Mukherjee in those days used to visit the big 
officials. When he paid his respects to Sir Hyde East 
he was requested to ascertain, whether his countrymen 
were favorable to the establishment of a college for 

( 6 ) 

the education of the Hindu Youth, in English litera- 
ture and science. Buddinath beloi^d to a respectable 
family and his poita was his prestige. He sounded the 
leading members of the Hindu society, and reported to 
Sir Hyde East that they were agreeable to the proposal. 
Several meetings were held at Sir Hyde East's House, 
and it was resolved that "an establishment be fonned 
for the education of native youth." It was sub- 
sequently reported that Ram Mohua Roy would be 
connected with the College. The orthodox members, 
one and all, said, that we will have nothing with the 
Collie. Buddinath was thrown into the shade. Sir 
Hyde East was in a fix and the whole plan was upset. 

Hare, who had kept himself in the back ground, 
and was watching the movement with intense interest, 
bestirred himself in arranging with Ram Mohun Roy, 
as to his having no connection with the College, and 
thus secured the support of the orthodox Hindu 
gentlemen. There was no difRculty in getting Ram 
Mohun Roy to renounce his connection, as he valued 
the education of his countrymen more thao die empty, ' 
flourish of his name as a committee-man. But we must 
not lose sight of Hare's services. They were rendered 
quietly. A meeting was accordingly held on the 14th 
May, 1816. It was numerously attended by respecuble 
Hindus and Pundits. The latter spoke as folbws — 
"We have been in our day a learned nation, and there 
are still a few learned men among us, but science 
has been overwhelmed with a rapid succession of 
barbaric governors, and the light of learning nearly 


( 7 I 

extioguished. Now however we trust that its embers 
are reviving, and that we shall become powerfully a 
learned people." 

Sir Hyde East addressed the meeting as to die 
object for which it was called, and dwelt on the 
benefits of the proposed Institution. A lai^e sum of 
money was subscribed, and it was reported that many 
Hindu gentlemen who were not present were willing 
to subscribe. 

Another meeting was called on the 2l8t May, 1816, 
at which the foundation of the Hindu college of 
Calcutta, for promoting education, was determined 
upon. It was also resolved to ask the Governor and 
members of the Council to become Patro:is, Sir Hyde 
East to accept the office of President, and Mr. J. H. 
Harrington the office of Vice-President. 

A committee composed of eight European and 
twenty native gentlemen was appointed. Lieut. Irvine 
and Buddinath Mookerjea were appointed Secretaries. 

The committee held several meetings. Hare was 
present as a visitor, and gave the benefit of his advice 
in framing several Rules as to tuition, funds and 
privileges, which were sanctioned at a general meetii^ 
held on the 27th August, 1816.» 

The Hindu College was opened on Monday the 
20th January, 1817, at Gorachand Bysak's house in 
Goranhatu. Amoi^ the European gentlemen present, 
■were Mr. E. Hyde East, Mr. Harrington and Mr. 

* See Appendix A, 

Digiiizcdt* Google 

( » ) 

Hare. On the followng day the college was visited 
by a large number of spectators. Baboo Buddinath 
Mookerjee, the native secretary, assured all present, 
that he hoped that the school^ which yet was but a 
seedling, would many years hence resemble the Bur 
tree, which when fully grown was the largest of trees 
in India, cooling and refreshing all those who come 
under its shade. 

The College was subsequently removed to Roop 
Churn Roy's house in Chilpore, and thence to Feringhi 
Komul Bose's house. In 1819 the Institution felt the 
inadequacy of its income. David attended a meeting 
of the committee and pointed out that the Institution 
could not afford to pay 300 Rs. to the European and 100 
Rs. monthly to the native Secretaries. The Managers 
agreed vrith him, upon which Lieutenant Irvine resig- 
ned, but Buddinath continued as Honorary Secretary. 

The Government had abandoned the idea of esta- 
blishing Sanscrit Colleges in Nuddea and Tirhoot, 
but determined to establish one in Calcutta. Ram 
Mohun Roy, although a Sanscrit scholar, was strongly 
opposed to this measure, and wrote to government the 
followii^ letter : — 



Governor General in Council 
My- Lord 

Humbly reluctant as the natives of India are to 
obtrude upon the notice of Covernmeot the sentiments 

Digiiizcdt* Google 

( « ) 

they entertain on any public measure, there are circums- 
tances when silence would be carrying this respectful 
feeling to culpable excess. The present rulers of India, 
coming from a distance of many thousand miles to 
govern a people whose language, literature, manners, 
customs, and ideas, are almost entirely new and strange 
to them, cannot easily become so intimately acquain- 
ted with their real circumstances as the natives of the 
country are themselves. We should therefore be guilty 
of a gross dereliction of duty to ourselves and afford our 
rulers just grounds of complaint at our apathy, did we 
Omit on occasions of importance like the present, to 
supply them with such accurate information as might 
enable them to devise and adopt measures calculated 
to be beneficial to the country, and thus second by 
our local knowledge , and experience their declared 
benevolent intentions for its improvement. ■ 

"The establishment of a new Sanscrit School in 
Calcutta evinces the laudable desire of Government to 
improve the natives of India by education, — a blessing 
iEor which they must ever be grateful, and every well- 
wisher of the human race must be desirous that the 
efforts made to promote it, should be guided by the 
most enlightened principles, so that the stream of 
iatelligence n«y flow in the most useful channels. 

"When this seminary of learning was proposed, we 
imdetstood that the Government in England had 
ordered a considerable sum of money to be annually 
devoted to the instruction of its Indian subjects. We 
were fflled with sanguine hopes that this sum would 

( 10 ) 

be laid out in employing European gentlemen of 
talents and education to instruct the natives of India, 
in Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, 
Anatomy, and other useful sciences, which the natives 
of Europe have cairied to a degree of perfection that 
has raised them above the inhabitants of other part of 
the world. 

"While we looked forward with pleasing hope to 
the dawn of knowledge, thus promised to the rising 
generation, our hearts were filled with mingled feelings 
of delight and gratitude, we already offered up thanks 
to Providence for inspiring the most generous and 
enlightened nations of the West with the glorious 
ambition of planting in Asia the arts and sciences of 
Modern Europe. 

"Wc iind that the Government are establishing a 
Sanscrit Vhool under Hindu Pundits to impart such 
knowledge as is already current in India. This 
seminary (suntiar in character to those which existed 
in Europe before the time of Lord Bacon) can only 
be expected to load the minds of youth with gram- 
matical niceties and metaphysical distinctions of little 
or no practical use to the possessors or to society. 
The pupils will there acquire what was known two 
thousand years ago with the addition of vain and 
empty subtleties since then produced by speculative- 
men such as is already commonly taught in all parts 
of India. 

"The Sanscrit lai^uage, so difficult that almost a 
life time is necessary for its acquisition, is well known 


( 11 ) 

to have been for ages a lamentable check to the 
diffusion of knowledge, and '.he learning concealed 
under this almost impervious veil, is far from sufficient 
to reward the labour of acquiring it. But if it were 
thought necessary to perpetuate this language for the 
sake of the portion of valuable information it contains, 
this might be much more easily accomplished by other 
means than the establishment of a new Sanscrit College, 
for there have been always and are now numerous 
professors of Sanscrit in the different parts of the 
country engaged in teaching this language, as well as 
the other branches of literature which are to be the 
object of the new seminary. Therefore their more 
diligent cultivation, if desirable, would he effectually 
promoted, by holding out premiums and granting 
certain allowances to their most eminent professors, 
who have already undertaken on their own account to 
teach them, and would by such rewards be stimulated 
to still greater exertion. 

From these considerations, as the sum set apart 
for the instruction of the native of India was intended 
by the Government in Ei^land for the improvement 
of its Indian subjects, I beg leave to state, with due 
defference to your Lordship's exalted situation, that 
if the plan now adopted be followed, it will com- 
pletely, defeat the object proposed, since no improve- 
ment can be expected from inducing young men to 
consume 8 dozen of years of the most valuable period 
of their lives in acquiring the niceties of Baikarana or 
Sanskrit Grammar. For instance, in learning to 

D:,-:c.Jt, Google 

( li ) 

discuss such poinls as the following ; khada, signifying 
to eat, khadali he or she or it cats ; query whether 
does khadati taken as a whole conveys the meaning he, 
she or it eats, or are separate parts of this meaning 
conveyed by distinctions of the word. As if in the 
English language it were asked how much meaning is 
there in the eat and how much in the s ? And is the 
whole meaning of the word conveyed by these 
two portions of it distinctly or by them taken 
jointly ? 

Neither can much improvement arise from such 
speculations as the following which are the themes 
suggested by the Vedania ; — in what manner is the 
soul absorbed in the deity ? What relation does it bear 
to the Divine Essence i" Nor will youths be fitted to 
be better members of society by the Vedantic doctrines 
which teach them to believe, that all visible thii^s 
have no real existence, that as father, brother, &c. 
have no actual entity consequently deserve no real 
affection, and therefore the sooner we escape from 
them and leave the world the better. Again, no essen- 
tial benefit can be derived by the student of the 
Mimansa from knowing what it is that makes the killer of 
a goat sinless by pronouncing certain passages of the 
Vedanta, and what is the real nature and operative in- 
fluence of passages of the Vedas, &c. 

The student of the Naya Shastra can not be said 
to have improved his mind after he has learned from 
it into how many ideal classes the objects in the uni- 
verse are divided and what speculative relation the 


( 13 ) 

soul bears to the body, »he body to the soul, the eye 
to the ear, &c. 

In. order to enable your Lordship to appreciate the 
utility of encouraging such imaginary learning as above 
characterized, I beg your Lordship will be pleased to 
compare the state of science and literature in Europe 
before the time of Lord Bacon with the progress of 
knowledge made since he wrote. 

If it had been intended to keep the British nation 
in ignorance of real knowkdge, the Baconian philo- 
sophy would not have been allowed to displace the 
system of the schoolmen, which was the best cal- 
culated to perpetuate ignorance. In the same manner 
the Sanscrit system of education would be the best 
calculated to keep this country in darkness, if such had 
been the policy of the British legislature. But as the 
improvement of the native population is the object of 
the Government, it will consequently promote a more 
liberal and enlightened system of instruction, embracing 
Mathematics, Natural Philosophy, Chemistry, Anatomy, 
with other useful sciences, \vhich may be accomplished 
with the sums proposed by employing a few gentlemen 
of talents and learning educated in Europe and 
providing a College furnished with necessary books, 
instruments, and other apparatus. 

In representing this subject to your Lordship I 
conceive myself dischai^ing a solemn duty which I 
owe to my countrymen and also to that enlightened 
sovereign and legislature which have extended their 
benevolent care to this distant land, actuated by a 


( !♦ ) 

desire to improve the inhabitants, and therd'ore 
humbly trust you will excuse the liberty I have taken 
in thus expressing my sentiments to your Lordship. 
I have the honor &c. 
Ram Mohun Roy." 
The Government remained unmoved but sent 
the letter to the committee of Public Instruction. 
At last arrangements were made through the influence 
of Dr. H. H. Wilson for the erection of one building 
for the Sanscrit and Hindu Colleges, The Government 
gave Rs. 1,24,000 and "Mr. David Hare gave up for 
the benefit of the College the piece of land he owned 
on the north side of the College square." On the 25th 
February 1824 the foundation stone of the College 
building was laid — 

The copy of the inscription is as follows : — 

"In the Reign of 

His Most Gracious Majesty George the Fourth, 

dmdbr tbb ausficbs of 

THE Right Hon'ble William Pitt Amherst, 


The Foundation Stone of this Edifice, 

John Pascal Larkins Esquire 
Provincial Grand Master of the Fraternity of Free 
Masons in Bengal 


( 15 ) 

Amidst thb Acci-amations 

A Numerous Assembly of the Fraternity 



of General Instruction 

On the 25th day of Ferbruary 1824. 

and Aera of Masonry 5824 

Which may God prosper 

Planned by B. Buxton, Lieut. Bengal Engineers 

and constroctkd by 

WiLLAM Burn and James Mackintosh." 

In January 1825 the building was completed. It 
accommodated the Sanscrit and Hindu colleges. The 
struggling of the latter had not ceased, and the anxiety 
of the Managing Committee was not over. By the 
failure of Joseph Barretto and Sons, the Treasurers, 
the Hindu College lost all the funded property, and it 
was compelled to apply to Government for pecuniary 
support. The Government was willing to help the 
College, but wanted to know whether the Managing 
Committee would allow the Committee of Public Ins- 
truction to exercise control over the management. 
This called forth a protest from Radhamadub Banerjea 
and Chunder Cooraar Tagore, who apprehended un- 
desirable changes which might be made, and wished 

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( 16 ) 

that the Institution might be left to ita Own resources. 
At last the Managing Committee agreed to a joint 
committee, consisting of an equal number of European 
and native, members, being appointed for the manage- 
ment of the College, and that "any measure to which 
the native express an unanimous objection shall not be 
carried into effect," The General Committee of 
Public Instruction wrote in reply, that they would 
simply limit their supervision to the funds which the 
Government would give from time to time, and 
proposed that Dr. H. H. Wilson on their behalf 
should exercise supervising control, which was agreed 
to. Dr. Wilson was accordingly elected by the 
Managing Committee as an ex-officio Member and 
Vice President, and Mr. Hare an Honorary Member 
of the Committee. He attended daily to look after 
the College. About this time Rajah Biiddinath, Hurry- 
nath Roy, son of Canto Babu, and Kalec Sunkur 
Ghosal gave 50,000 Rs., 20,000 Rs. and 20.000 Rs. 
respectively which amount was appropriated to the 
establishment of Scholarships to induce students to 
prolong their academic career. 

Of all the teachers Mr. H. L. V. Dciozio gave 
the greatest impetus to free discussion on all subjects, 
social, moral and religious. He was himself a free 
thinker, and possessed affable manners. He en- 
couraged students to come and open their minds to 
him. The advanced students of the Hindu College 
frequently sought for his company during tiffin time, 
after School hours, and at his house. He encouraged 


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every one to speak out. This led to free exchange of 
thought and reading of books which otherwise would 
not have been read. These books were chiefly 
poetical, metaphysical and reli^ous. It was at last 
proposed to esublish, in 1828 or 1829, a debating 
club, called the Academic Association, at the house 
now occupied by the Wards Institution. Krishna- 
miihun Banerjea, Russickrishna Mullick, Duckinarunjun 
Mookerjea, Ramgopaul Ghose, Ramtonoo Lahiree, 
Radhanath Sickdhar, Madhab Chunder Mullick, 
Gobindch under Bysack, and others were members. 
Mr. Hare was a regular visitor. Sir Edward Ryan and 
Colonel Benson, Private Secretary to Lord W. 
Bentinck, used to visit the meetings occasionally. 
Under Derozio's direction, the advanced students of 
the Hindu College issued a paper named "the 
Pirthenon," but it was stopped by order of Dr. 
Wilson. The convulsion caused by Derozio was 
great. It pervaded almost the house of every advanced 
student. Down with Hinduism ! Down with or- 
thodoxy ! Was the cry every where. The Managing 
Committee being apprehensive passed the following 
resolution ; — 

"That Mr. D'Anseleme be requested, in communi- 
cation with the teachers, to check as far as possible 
all disquisitions tendii^ to unsettle the belief of the 
boys in the great principles of national religion." 
The jimior students caught from the senior students 
the infection of ridiculing the Hindu religion, and 
where they were required to utter mantras or prayers, 

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they repeated lines from the Iliad. There were some 
who flung the Brahmaaical thread instead of putting 
it on. The horror of the orthodox families was 
intensiiied — withdrawals of pupils took place. The 
Managing Committee met and resolved as follows — 
"The teachers are particularly enjoined to abstain 
from any conmiunication on the subject of the Hindu 
rel^ion with the boys, or to suffer any practices 
inconsistent with the Hindu notions of propriety, such 
as eating or drinking in the school or class rooms. 
Any deviation from this injunction will be reported by 
Mr. D'Anseleme to the Visitor immediately ; and 
should it appear that the teacher is at all culpable he 
will forthwith be dismissed." Finding that the ideas 
of the Hindu students as to Hinduism were being 
shaken, some of the Clei^ymcn availed themselves 
of the opportunity to give lectures on the evidences 
of Christianity nesy the College. The Managing 
Committee met and passed the following order : — 

"The managers of the Anglo Indian Collie having 
heard that several of the students are in the habit of 
attending societies at which political and religious 
discussions are held, think it necessary to announce 
their strong disapprobation of the practice, and to 
prohibit its continuance ; any student being present at 
such a society after the promulgation of this order, 
will incur their displeasure." This brought on a little 
calmness, but the teachings of Derozio again caused 
commotion. Boys were withdrawn or not allowed to 
attend. In such circumstances Ramcomal Sen, 


( 19 ) - 

apprehending great danger, called a meeting of the 
Committee and urged that the College wo'dd not 
prosper till Dcrozio was removed, he "being the root 
of all evil." He further proposed that those r.tudents 
who are known to take English food and are hostile to 
Hinduism should be expelled, those boys v;ho attended 
private lectures and meetings should be removed, and 
that teachers should be prohibited from eating on the 
school table. 

Mr. Hare and Dr. Wilson e>:pressed their opinion 
against Derozio's removal as they considered him a 
competent teacher. 

The next question was whether it was expedient, in 
the present state of public feeling among the Hindu 
community of Calcutta, to dismiss Mr. Derozio from 
the College. 

The majority voted in favor of Derozio's dismissal, 
Hare and Wilson declining to vote on a subject 
affecting the state of native feeling alone. 

The Managing Committee on reconsideration 
rejol^'ed that they have not the power nor ihe right to 
enforce the prohibition Of boys attending public 
lectures or meetings. 

Derozio had been very indifferent to systematic 
teach'ng. Every teacher had to submit a monthly 
p'^ogess reports to the Head Master D'Anseleme. On 
one occasion Derozio took the report to him while 
Hare ivas standing near his desk. The ?ight of this 
report so much exasperated D'Anseleme that he lifted 
his hand to sttiko Derozio, who averted it by 

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receding. D'Anseleme not being able to strike Deiozio 
vented his anger on Hare and called him "a vile 
sycophant." Hare kept his temper, and at&ed whose 
sycophant was he i Next day Hare came Ui 
D'Anseleme and shook bands with him as if nothing 
had happened. 

Derozio, hearii^ of the resolution of the Mans^ing 
Committee, addressed the following letter to Dr. H. H. 
Wilson : — 


My dear Sir : — The accompanying is my resigna- 
tion ; but you will observe that I have taken the 
liberty of departing from your suggestion of making 
it appear a merit on my part. If I bad grounds to 
believe that my continued connection with the College 
would be really and permanently prejudicial to that 
institution, the spirit to leave it without any su^estion. 
but that of my own mind, would not be wantii^. 
I do not conceive, however, that a temporary shock 
needs such a sacrifice ; and I cannot, therefore, conceal 
from myself the fact that my resignation is compulsory. 
Under these circumstances, I trust you will see the 
propriety of my declinii^ to make that appear a merit 
which is really a necessity. 

Nevertheless, I thank you heartily for having 
recommended me to do 80, because I perceive it to 
have been the dictate of a generous heart anxious to 
soothe what it could not heal. But I dare not ascribe 

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to myself a merit which I do not possess, and if my 
dismissal be considered a deserved disgrace by the 
wise and good, I must endure it. 

As the intemperate spirit displayed against me by 
the Native Managers of the College is not likely to 
subside so completely as to admit of my return to 
that Institution as speedily as you expect ; and as the 
chances of life may shape my future destiny so as to 
bring me but rarely in contact with you ; I cannot 
permit this opportunity to pass without recording my 
grateful acknowledgements to you for all the kindness 
you have shown me, since I have had the honor and 
pleasure of being known to you. In particular I must 
thank you for the delicacy with which you conveyed 
to me On Saturday last, the resolution of the Managing 
Committee, and for the sympathy which I perceived 
my case had excited io you. 

Such circumstances, when genuine, and unaffected, 
make deeper impressions on my feeling %han those 
greater acts of favor the motives for which we cannot 
always trace. 

Believe me to be my dear Sir, with sentiments of 
respect and r^ard. 

Calcutta. Yours sincerely. 

25th April, 1831. H. L. V Derozio, 

Mr. Derozio wrote the following letter to the 
Managing Committee : — 

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Having been informed that the result of your 
deliberation in close Committee on Saturday last, was 
a resolution to dispense with my further services at 
the Collie, I am induced to place my resignation in 
your hands in order to save myself the mortification 
of receiving formal notice of my dismissal. 

It would however be unjust to my reputation, 
which I value, were I to abstain from recording in 
this communication certain facts, which I presume, do 
not appear upon the face of your proceedings. Firstly, 
no charge was brought against me. Secondly, if any 
accusation was brought foiward, I was not informed 
of it i thirdly, I was not called up to face my accusers, 
if any of such appeared ; fourthly, no witnesses were 
examined on either side ; fifthly, my conduct and 
character Underwent scrutiny and no opportunity was 
afforded me of defending either ; sixthly, while a 
majority of the committee did not, as 1 have learnt, 
consider me an unfit person to be connected with the 
College, it was resolved notwithstanding that I should 
be removed from it. So that unbiased, unexamined, 
and unheard, you resolve to dismiss me without even 
the' mockery of a trial. These are facts — I offer not 
h word of comraenl. 

I must also avail myself of this opportunity of 
recording my thanks to Mr. Wilson, Mr. Hare, and 
Uabu Sreekissen Sing for the piiit which I am 

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informed they respectively took in your proceedings 
on Saturday last. 

Calcutta, I am, Gentlemen, your obdt, servt. 

25rA April, 183! H. L. V. Derozio. 

Dr. Wilson's reply to Mr. Derozio : — 


Dear Derozio, I believe you are right, although 
I could have wished you had been less severe upon 
the Native managers, whose decision was founded 
merely upon the expediency of yielding to popular 
clamour, the justice of which it was not encumbent 
upon them to investigate. There was no trial intended, 
— there was no condemnation. An impression had 
gone abroad to your disadvantage, the effects of which 
were injurious to the College, and which would not 
have been dispelled by any proof you could have 
produced, that it was unfounded. I suppose there 
will still be much discussion on the subject, privately 
only I trust, but that there will be, and I should like 
to have the power of speaking confidently on three 
charges brought against you. Of course it rests 
entirely with you to answer my questions. Do you 
believe in a God ? Do you think respect and obedience 
to parents no part of moral duty ? Do you think 
the intermarriage of brothers and sisters innocent and 
allowable f Have you ever maintained these doctrines 
by argument in the hearing of your scholars ? Now 

( 24 ) 

I have no right to interrogate you on these or any 
other of your sentiments, but these are the rumoured 
charges against you, and I should be very happy if 
I could say boldly they were false, or could produce 
your written and unqualified denial for the satisfaction 
of those whose good opinion is worth having. 

Yours sincerely 
25th April H. H. Wilson 

Mr. Derozio's second letter to Dr. Wilson : — 


My dear Sir, 

Your letter which I received last evening should 
have been answered earlier, but for the interference of 
other matters which required my attention, I beg your 
acceptance of this apology for the delay, and thank 
you for the interest which your most excellent 
communication proves that you continue to take in 
me. I am sorry, however, that the question you have 
put to me will impose upon you the disagreable 
necessity of reading this long justification of my 
conduct and opinions. But I must congratulate myself 
that this opportunity is afforded me of addressing so 
influential and distinguished an individual as yourself 
upon matters which if true might seriously affect my 
character. My friends need not however be under 
any apprehension for me ; for myself the consciousness 
of right is my safe guard and my consolation' 


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(1) I have never denied the existence of a god in 
hearing of any human being. If it be wrong to speak 
at all upon such a subject I am guilty ; for I am 
neither afraid nor ashamed to confess having stated 
the doubts of philosophers upon this head, because I 
have also stated the solution of those doubts. Is it 
forbidden any where to argue upon such a question i 
If so it must be equally wrong to adduce an argument 
upon either side, or Is it consistent with an en%htened 
notion of truth to wed ourselves to only one view of 
so important a subject, resolving to close our eyes 
and ears against all impressions that oppose themselves 
to it ? 

How is any opinion to be strengthened, but by 
completely comprehending the objections that are 
offered to it and exposing their futility ? And what 
have I done more than this i Entrusted as I was 
for some time with the education of youth, 
peculiarly circumstanced, was it for me to hive made 
them pert and ignorant dogmatists by pencittii^ them 
to know what could be said upon only one side of 
grave questions } Settir^ aside the narrowness of mind 
which such a course might have evinced, it would have 
been injurious to the mental eneigies and acquirements 
of the young men themselves. And (whatever may be 
said to the contrary) I can indicate my procedure by 
quoting no less orthodox authority than Lord Bacon. 
*'If a man" says this philosopher ( and no one bad a 
better right to pronounce an opinion upon sudi 
matters than he ) "will begin with certainties, he 

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( ^ ) 

shall end in doubt." This I need scarcely observe is 
always the case with contended ignorance, when it is 
roused too late to thought, one doubt su^eats another 
and universal scepticism is the consequence, I there- 
fore thought it my duty to acquaint several of the 
College students with the substance of Hume's cele- 
brated dialogue between Clenthes and Philo, in which 
the most subtle and refined arguments againSt Theism 
are adduced. But I have also furnished them with 
Dr. Reid's and Dugald Stewart's more acute replies 
to Hume, replies which to this day continue unrefutcd. 
This is the head and front of my offending. If the 
religious opinions of the students have become un- 
hinged in consequence of the course I have pursued, 
the fault is not mine. To produce conviction was not 
within my power, and If I am to be condemned for 
the Atheism of some, let me receive credit for the 
Theism of others. Believe me, my dear Sir, I am too 
thoroughly imbued with the deep sense of human 
ignorance and of the perpetual vicissitudes of opinion 
to speak with confidence even of the most unimportant 
matters. Doubt and uncertainty besiege us too closely 
to admit the boldnes of dc^matism to enter an e.n- 
quiring mind, and far be it from me to say "that U" 
and "that is not," when after the most extensive 
aquaintance with the researches of science, and after 
the most daring Sights of genius, we must confess 
with sorrow and disappointment that humility becomes ' 
the highest wisdom — for the highest wisdom assures 
man of his ignorance. 

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( 27 ) 

(II.) Your next question is "do you think respect 
and obedience to parents no part of moral duty ?" For 
the first time in my life did I learn from your letter 
that I am charged with having inculcated so hideous, 
so unnatural, so abominable a principle. The authors 
of such infamous fabrications are too degraded even 
for my contempt. Had my father been alive, he 
would have repelled the slander by telling my calum- 
niators that a son who had endeavoured to discharge 
every filial duty as I have done, could never ' have 
entertained such a sentiment, but my mother can testify 
how utterly inconsistent it is with my conduct, and 
upon her testimony I might rest my vindication. 
However I will not stop there : so far from having 
even maintained or taught such opinion, I have 
always insisted upon respect and obedience to parents. 
I have indeed condemned that feigned respect which 
some children evince, as being hypocritical and in- 
jurious to the moral character, but I have always 
endeavoured to cherish the genuine feelings of the 
heart and to direct them to proper channels. Ins- 
tances, however in which I have insisted upon respect 
and obedience to parents are not wanting. I st^l quote 
important ones for your satisfaction, and as the parties 
are always at hand you may at any time substantiate 
'what I say. About two or three months ago, 
Dakshinarunjan Mookherjee ( who has made so great 
a nOise lately ) informed me that bis father's treatment 
of him had become utterly insupportable, and that his 
only chance of escaping it was by leavii^ his father's 

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house. Although I was aware of the truth of what 
be bad said, I dissuaded him from taking such a 
course, tellii^ him that much should be endured from 
a parent, and thai the world would not justify bis 
conduct if he left his home without being actually 
turned out of it. He took my advice, though I regret 
to say Only for a short time. A few weeks ago he 
left his father's house and to my great surprise 
engaged another in my neighbourhood. After he 
had completed bis arrangements with his landlord, 
he infonned me for the first time of what be had 
done, and when I asked him why he had not 
consult^ me before he took such a step, "because," 
replied he, "I knew you would have prevented 

Hie other instance relates to Mobesh Chunder 
Sing- Having behaved rudely to his father and 
offended some of bis other relatives, he called upon 
me at my house with his uncle Unjachurn Bose and 
his cousin Nundolall Sing. I reproached him severely 
for bis contumacious behaviour, and told him that 
until he sought forgiveness from his father I would 
not speak to him. I might mention other cases but 
these may suffice. 

(HI.) "Do you think marriages of brother and 
sister innocent and allowable 7" This is your third 
question. No — is my distinct reply and I never taught 
such an absurdity. But I am at a loss to find out 
how such misrepresentations as those to which I have 
been exposed, have become current. No person who 

( 29 ) 

has ever heard me apeak upon such subjects could have 
circulated these untruths, at least I can hardly bring 
myself to think that one of the College students with 
whom I have been connected could be either such a 
fool as to mistake everything I ever said, or such a 
knave as wilfully to mistake my opinions. I am rather 
disposed to believe that weak people who are deter- 
mined upon being alarmed, and finding nothing to be 
frightened at, have imputed tJiese follies to me. That 
I should be called a sceptic and an infidel is not 
surprising, as these names are always given to persons 
who think for themselves in religion, but I assure you 
that the imputations which you say are alleged against 
me I have learned for the first time from your letter, 
never having even dreamed that sentiments so Opposed 
to my own could have been ascribed to me. I must 
trust therefore to your generosity to give the most 
unqualified contradiction to these ridiculous stories. 
I am not a greater monster than most people, though 
I certainly should not know myself were I to credit 
all that is said of me. I am aware that for some 
weeks some busy bodies have been manufacturing the 
most tdisurd and groundless stories about me, and 
even about my family. Some fools went so far as to 
say my sister, while others said my daughter {though I 
have not one) was to have been married to a Hindu 
young man M ! I traced the report to a person named 
Brindabone Chosal, a poor Brahmin who lives by going 
from house to house to entertain the inmates with the 
news of the day, which he invariably invents. However 

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it is a satisfaction to reflect that scandal though often 
noisy is not everlasting. 

Now that I have replied to your questions, allow 
me to ask you, my dear Sir, whether the expediency 
of yielding to popular clamour can be offered in justi- 
fication of the measures adopted by the Native 
Manners of the College towards me ? Their pro- 
ceedings certainly do not record any condemnation of 
me, but docs it not look very like condemnation of a 
man's conduct and character to dismiss him from 
office when popular clamour is against him ? Vague 
reports and unfounded rumours went abioad concer- 
ning me ; the Native Managers confirm these by 
actii^ towards me as they have done. Excuse my 
saying it, but I believe there was a determ'nation on 
their part to get rid of me, not to satisfy popular 
clamour but their own bigotry. Had my religion and 
morals, been investigated by them, they could have had 
no grounds to proceed against me. They therefore 
thought it most expedient to make no enquiry, but 
with anger and precipitation to remove me from the 
Institution. The slovenly manner in which they ha\e 
done so is a sufficient indication of the spirit by which 
they were moved, for in their rage they have forgotten 
what was due even lo common decency. Every person 
who has heard of the way in which they have acted is 
indignant, but to complain of their injustce would be 
paying them a greater compliment than they deserve. 

In concluding this address, allow me to apologise 
for its inordinate length, and to repeat my thanks for 

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( 31 ) 

all that you have done for me in the unpleasant affair 
by which it has been occasioned. 

I remain, Sir, &c., 
26 April 1831. H. L. V. Derozio 

While connected with the College, Derozio used 
to edit a paper called "Hesperus" which died away, 
and he established a daily paper called the "East 
Indian." After his connection with the CoU^e 
ceased, Krishnamohun Banerjea, who, after leavii^ 
College, was a teacher of Hare's School, conducted a 
paper called the "Enquirer." Derozio appears to have 
made strong impression on his pupils, as they regularly 
visited him at his house and spent hours in conversa- 
tion with him. He continued to teach at home what 
he had taught at school. He used to impress upon his 
pupils the sacred duty of thinking for themselves — 
to be in no way influenced by any of the idols 
mentioned by Bacon — to live and die for truth — to 
cultivate and practise all the virtues; shunning vice in 
every shape. He often read examples from ancient 
history of the love of justice patriotism, philanthrophy 
and self abnegation, and the way in which be set 
forth the points stirred up the minds of his pupils. 
Some were impressed with the excellence of justice, 
some with the paramount importance of truth, some 
with patriotism, some with philanthropy. The pupils 
who constantly sought for Derozio's company were 
Krishna Mohun Banerjea, Bussic Krishna Mullick, 


( 32 ) 

Duckhina Runjun Mookerjea, Ramgopaul Ghose, 
Madhabch under Mullick, Ramtonoo Lahiree, 

Moheshchunder Ghose, Shib Chunder Dev, Hum- 
Chuoder Ghose, Radhanath Sickdar, Gobindchunder 
Bysack, Amritalall Mittra and others, who may 
be called the "Young Calcutu." The first four for 
sometime acted as firebrands. Time moderated their 
impulsiveness. The uppermost thought was to expose 
Hinduism, and to renounce it. Krishna Mohun 
Banerjea, who is naturally humourous and satirical, 
came out with a work called the "Persecuted," in 
which he exposed the heterodoxy of the Hindus who 
passed as members of the orthodox community, and 
shewed that there was no such thing as caste after all. 
It was apprehended that Russic Krishna Mullick 
would turn out a renegade, and he was therefore 
drugged. He was insensible during the night. In 
the morning, while he was being put in irons for the 
purpose of being packed off to some distant place 
where he would have no evil companions, his 
consciousness returned, and he resisted the attempt. 
Abandoning his father's house, he lived at Chorebagan, 
and conducted the Gyananeshan. Duckhinaninjun was 
of sanguine temperament and susceptible of good 
influences. His heart warmed at the distress of 
others. When Tarachand Chucroburttee was in 
distress, Duckbinarunjun sent him a Bank note for 
Rs. 1000 as a gift anonymously. Tarachand afterwards 
traced his benefactor, and arranged with him to 
receive the qiOney as a loan. Ramgopaul was, at 

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( 33 ) 

Hare's recommendation, appointed as an assistant to a 
mercantile house. His sympathy with Derozio, 
Kiishnamohun and Russic was deep. Latterly he 
regarded Russic as clear headed, well grounded in 
general principles, cautious in generalizing, and 
philosophical in reasoning. It may be mentioned, 
that although Russic was not an eloquent speaker, he 
was so thoughtful in his exposition and argumentation, 
that he was always listened to with greatest attention, 
more especially by Mr, Hare and Mr. Anderson of 
Colvin & Co. who frequently attended the meetings 
of the Academic, and liked much to hear Russic. The 
lesson which Russickrishna taught was precision of 
thought and expression. Madhubchunder Mullick was 
a quiet enquirer, but his quietness did not in any way 
impair the strei^tb of his decision. Bhowbani Chum 
Benerjee attributed to Madhubchunder Hinduism, 
which he rerrounced in a strong letter published in an 
Ei^lish News paper. Ran^opaul continued to shine 
as a speaker at the Academic and a writer in Russic's 
paper. He was an eloquent but not so close a 
reasOner as Russic. His association with his 
colleagues, the pioneers of reform, threw him into 
diiHcuIties. It was notorious that he had departed 
from Hinduism ; his kith and kin at Bagati, where his 
domicile was, excommunicated him, and his sins were 
visited upon his father, who was nicknamed "Beef- 
eating Gobind Ghose. " Gobindchunder Bysuck 
while at School was a poet and was a yOung man of 
high literary attainments. He studied Paley and otlier 

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theological writers. He wrote a series of articles 
against Christianity in the Reformer, of ^ich 
Prosonocoomar Tagore was the proprietor, to some 
of Vnhich replies appeared in the Enquirer from the 
pen of nO less a person than Ross Donnelly Mangles, 
now of the Council of India. Gobind established a 
school at which Dr. Rajendralal Mitra received his 

The moral lessons taught by Derozio gradually 
produced good practical effects. Krishna Mohun and 
Mohesh gradually acquired calmness, and finding a 
void in Derozio's teachings in as much as they did not 
open the vista into the life to come, began to examine 
the evidences of Christianity, and at last embraced it. 
Poor Mohesh did not live long in the flesh as a 
Christian, but the change in him before his death was 
marked. Krishna Mohun delivered a sermon On his 
death at the Old Church, showing that Mohesh the 
Christian was different person from Mohesh the 
heathen. David Hare attended the Old Church and 
spoke of the sermOn in the highest terms. This shows 
that Hare was a catholic-minded man, and fell 
interested in the real progress of every person. 

Huruchunder Ghose, who valued Derozio as 
his tutor, was appointed a Moonsiff at Bancoorah. 
In those days corruption pervaded the lower grades 
of the unconvenanted Judicial service. The emolument 
w8s "nominal — the temptation was strong— there was 
h6 ;itrEad-of . the- press — bribery icould. be. pracliaed 
with* impimity. Huruchunder reduced all .he had 

( 35 ) 

learnt to the hve of Justice. He used to read, bpo^s 
which would elevate hi£ mind, and feed it with apble 
thoughts; In a pecuniary point of view the appQint- 
ment was a loss to him. He had to draw on h^ 
ismily to niake up his expenditure, but his happiness 
knew no bounds when he found that he was distribfitr 
ing Justice to the poorer classes of his country; In 
every nook and corner of Bancoorah his name Wjas 
revered as a good Judge and a godly man. Huru- 
chunder's subsequent career is well known. Amirta- 
lall, like Huruchunder, was quiet. They were 
apparently orthodox, as they were unwilling to give 
offence to any one ; but while they were socially 
not of the same mind, with their colleagues, they 
fully went with them as regards the rectitude of 
conduct and the necessity of reform. Huruchunder 
, distinguished himself as an incorruptible Judge. 
Amritalall was perhaps n.ore in the midst of tempt^ 
ation as the Government officer in charge of Tosha- 
khana. He not only dischat^ed his duties zealously 
and faithfully, but when he laid down his office he 
came out perhaps a poorer man than when he accepted 
it. There are men on whom the perishable world 
and its grandeur make no impression, and they prefer 
living within and looking up to what is to come i? 
after life. Ramtunnoo Lahiri is known more as a 
moral than an intellectual man. There are few persons 
in whom the milk of human kindness flows so 
abundantly. He was never wanting in his apprecia- 
tion of, what was r^ht, and in, his sympathy v^ith 


{ 36 ) 

advanced principles. He looked upon Russickrishna 
afr his friend, philosopher and guide. 

Radhanauth Sickdar had an ardent desire to 
benefit his country. His hobby was beef, as he 
maintained that beefeaters were never bullied, and 
that the right way to improve the Bengalees was to 
think first of the physique or perhaps physique and 
moral simultaneously. He conducted with me a 
monthly Bengali Magazine called "Masic Patrica" 
for about three years. Tarachand ChudirOburttee 
and Chundersaikur Deb, though not to be ranked 
as DerOzio's pupils, identified themselves with the 
"young Calcutta." Tarachand 's biographical sketch 
drawn up by me, appeared in a number of the India 
Review. He was an excellent English sdiolar ; 
thoughtful, and thoroughly independent. He was 
under Mr. L. Clarke as his assistant, and was much • 
respected by him. Clarke said to him "you are 
invaluable to me." Tarachand was the author of a 
Bengali and English Dictionary, and the Translator 
of Menu into Bei^ali, which he did not complete. 
Chundersaikur Deb is a man of varied acquirements. 
He is well versed in English literature, science, law, 
Sanscrit, and specially in Naya. He wrote a comment 
on tne Revenue law of Bengal. Mr. Theobald, for 
whom he wrote the comment, found him so deep 
that he told me that Chunder was fit to sit on the 

Chundersaikur, Russickrishna, Shibchunder Deb, 
Gobind Bysadi and Madhubchunder were employed 

Digilizcdb, Google 

( 37 ) 

as Deputy Collectors, and distinguished them' 
selves as honest and meritorious Officers, finding 
their reward in doing justice to the people. How- 
ever brilliant may have been the career of some of 
these gentlemen, either as regards the culture they 
reached or the status they attained, those who 
remained as "inglorious Miltons or village Hampdens" 
possessed the same earnestness of purpose and love 
for their country. There is one name which deserves 
special mention. Shibchunder Deb was a quiet and 
unpretending scholar. Those who know the good 
he has done to Konnugur, where he lives, by the 
esublishment of the English, Bengali and Female 
schools, a Library and Samaj, will be able to form 
an idea what the strength of a man is when he is 
rightly trained. 

The impetus to enquiry and the promotion of 
thought given by Derozio manifested itself in debat- 
ing clubs, which were encouraged by Hare. They 
sprang up in every part of the town. Hare, seeing 
the tendency of the Hindu mind, arranged with 
Derozio to deliver a course of lectures on metaphy- 
sics at his School, which was open to the public. 
Some four hundred youngmen used to attend the 
lectures, which were continued fOr sometime. 

Hare's public and private virtues made a strong 
impression on the leading students of Derozio. In 
1830 a public meeting of the native inhabitants was 
called at Madhubchundcr Mullik's house (Jorasanko) 
for the purpose of taking into consideration the 

( 38 ) 

services rendered by David Hare to the cause of native 
education, and determining on the testimonial to be 
voted to him- The meeting was numerously attended, 
and was held on two successive days. On the first 
day Krishnamohun Banerjea, and on the second 
day, Russick Krishna MuUick took the chair. The 
speakers were Radhanauth Sickdar, Krishnamohun 
Banerjea, Russick rishna Mullick, Duckinarunjun 
Mookerjee and Others. Radhanauth Sickdar, dwelling 
On the debased state of the country owing to misrule 
and oppression, instanced the coming of David Hare 
as the morning star to dispel our ignorance. Russic- 
krishna, in speaking of Hare's virtues, said that hia 
palanqueen was a regular dispensary, as it contained 
medicines for healing suffering of all kinds. It was 
determined that a subscription should be opened, and 
that Mr. D. Hare be asked to sit for his portrait. 
Huruch under Ghose was appointed Secretary — an 
address expressive of the deep gratitude of the native 
community was prepared. It was neatly written by 
Huruchunder on parchment, and presented to D. 
-Hare at his School, on the anniversary of his birth 
day, by a large number of natives headed by Duckina- 
ninjuu Mookerjee, who prefaced the presentation 
of the address with a feeling speech. When Duckina 
. said "thou art the mother who hast sucked us," Hare, 
shrugging his head as he used to do, showed a smile 
in his face. We cannot reproduce the address or the 
reply, but the late HurrOmohun Chatterjee left a short 
sketch of the reply. 

Digilizcdb, Google 

( 39 ) 

"Hare said that on his arrival in this country, he 
saw- that. India was teeming with productions ofall 
kinds, that her resources were inexhaustible, that her 
people were intelligent and industrious, and possessed 
of capabilities, if not superior at least equal to those 
of the other civilized inhabitants of the world, and 
that centuries of oppression and misrule had completely 
destroyed her own learning and philosophy, burying 
this land in almost total ignorance. To improve her 
condition, nothing appeared to him mOre essential 
than a dissemination of European learning and science 
among her people, and with this aim he had sown a 
seed which at the time he - was speaking had sprung 
up into a tree, bearing the fairest fruits, as evidenced 
in the learning and intelligence displayed around 

The portrait of Mr. D. Hare, painted by Mr. C. 
Pote. which was in the Sanscrit College, opposite to 
that of Dr. Wilson, is now to be seen at Hare's 

We have already mentioned that David Hare's 
ideas for enlightening the Hindus were by means of 
the Ei^Iish literature, and science, the cultivation 
of the Bengalee language, and the supply of suitable 
books in both the languages. According to his 
conviction he was working, and time came for his ideas 
. beii^ tested. 

On llie 17th July 1823, the General Committee of 
. Public Instruction was appointed "for the purpose of 
aacertainii^ the state of public education, and of the 

D:,-:c.Jt, Google 

( 40 ) 

public institutions designed for its promotion, and of 
considering and from time to time submittii^ to 
Government the suggestion of such measures as it may 
appear expedient to adopt with a view to the better 
instruction of the people, to the introduction among 
them of useful knowledge, and to the improvement of 
their moral character." 

The Court of Directors in their Despatch dated 
18th February 1824 wrote as follows. 

"With respect to sciences it was worse than a waste 
of time to employ persons to teach or learn them in 
the state in which they were found in the oriental 
books. Our great end should be not to teach Hindu 
learning, but sound learning." This despatch was 
drafted by James Mill, 

The Committee of Public Instruction made a 
favorable report on the Vidyalaya Or Hindu College of 

"A command of the English language and a 
^miliarity with its literature and science have been 
acquired to an extent rarely equalled by any schools 
in Europe. A taste for English has been widely 
disseminated and independent schools conducted by 
young men reared in the Vidyalaya are springing up in 
every direction. The moral effect has been remarkable 
and an impatience of the instructions of Hinduism and 
a disregard of its ceremonies are openly avowed 
by young men of respectable birth and talents, and 
entertained by many more who outwardly conform to 
the practices of their country men." 


( 41 ) 

On the 7th March 1835, Lord William Bentinck 
in Council recorded his resolution directing "tfie 
promotion of European literature and science amOi:^ 
the natives of India, and that all funds appropriated 
for the purposes of education would be best employed 
on English education alone." The resolution also 
prohibited the printing of oriental works out of the 
money given by Government. 

This resolution caused a division in the Committee 
of Public Instruction though they all agreed that "the 
vernacular languages contained neither the literary nor 
scientific information necessary for a liberal education, 
but the mass of the people must be educated through 
their own language," 

The dissatisfaction caused by the abo/e resolution 
was intense. Lord Auckland, with the view to pour 
oil over troubled waters, recorded a minute on the 
29th November 1839, adoptii^ English and vernacular 
as media of instruction till a series of good vernacular 
books were prepared. 

Lord Auckland laid so much stress on English 
Education that he kept an English School at Barrack- 
pore at his own expense. 

The Education Despatch of the 1^8th July 1854, 
settled this vexed question by stating that "our object 
is to extend European knowledge throughout all classes 
of people. We have shown that this object must be 
effected by means of the Ei^lish language in the higher 
branches of instruction, and by that of the vernacular 
lai^ages of India to the great mass of the people : — 


We print two letters from Mr. Hare shewing bow 
he looked after the conduct of boys and their tuition. 

Dear Sib, ^ 

I have received information which I cannot doubt 
that some of the college students are in the habit of 
making improper accusations against their school- 
fellows and frequently using dirty vulgar language. I 
beg leave to suggest to you the propriety of making 
clearly understood by every one that such conduct is 
strictly prohibited, and that any pupil who is found 
guilty of making or propagatii^ any improper chaise 
^^ainst any of his school -fellows, except in a complaint 
made privately to the Head Master, or using any 
vulgar abusive language either in or out of school, will 
be severely punished according to his merits, and that 
part of that punishment may be to stand upon a stool 
for I^ an hour in the middle of the school with a 
placard upon his breast stating that he has been guilty 
of using vulgar abusive language^ 

Yours &c., 
26tkMay 1834. David Habe 


Dear Sir, 

As verbal communications are apt to be forgotten, 
I think it just to address you in writing. I have men- 
tioned to you that I was much annoyed to observe so 
much irregularity in the school and to see the way 

D,g,l zed b, Google 

( 43 ) 

that Mr. Haiford's duties in the 3rd and 4th - classes 
have been manned during his absence. I must now beg 
to call your particular attention to it. The boys will , 
not obey a monitor from the 2nd class, and there 
is nothing but confusion in Mr. Halford's Room. 
You are aware that the Committee are averse to the 
use of monitor, if it can be avoided, and particularly 
wish the Head Master to see the classes as much as 
possible in the absence of any of the assistant teachers, 
and it must be evident to you, that nothing can tend 
more to the welfare of the school, than a frequent 
exercise Of this privilege, as it affords the Head 
Master an excellent opportunity of seeing what the 
classes are doing. I am now conscious that your 
weak state of health will not allow of great exertion, 
but as you are able to attend, I think you might look 
after things a little more. 

Yours &c., 
\Qtk June 1834. David Hare 


Being anxious to know whether David Hare was 
the founder of the Hindu College, I wrote to Rajah 
Radhakant on the subject, and the following is his 
leply, under date the 4th September 1847 : — 

"On the receipt of your letter of the 30th ulto, 
I have referred to the old records of the Hindu 
College, and found no allusion therein of the late 
Mr. David Hare's having been the originator of the 
Institution. If the idea of founding the Hindu 

( 44 ) 

College had originated with Mr- Hare, and been 
carried out through Sir Hyde East, as yOu have been 
informed, then the latter must have noticed it in his 
speech delivered at the first meeting of the Hindu 
Community, held at his house, on the 4th May 1816, 
for the establishment Of the Hindu College, and Mr- 
Hare must have consequently been appointed a 
member of the Committee, composed of 20 Natives 
and 10 Europeans, at the second meeting held on the 
21st of the above month. 

"I have also found that Mr. Hare was nominated 
a Visitor of the College on the 12th June 1819, and 
hence, as he gradually devoted his. time and attention 
to promote the object of the Institution, he rose in 
the public estimation and was elected a manager of 
the College, perhaps in the year 1825. Under these 
circumstances I have to conclude, that Sir Ed. Hyde 
East, and not Mr. D. Hare, was the originator or 
founder of the Hindu College, for the commemoration 
of which his lordship's statue has been erected 
in the grand Jury room of the Supreme Court, 
at the expencc of the Hindu gentlemen of this 

Rajha Radhakaunta was perhaps not aware of the 
good David Hare used to do by stealth. He took 
care not to appear as the ostensible founder of the 
Hindu College, but there is no doubt that in reality 
he was, as without his continued exertions to bring 
different, minds to bear upon one object, and rouse 
them to find means for its attainment in the way it 

DigilicJb, Google 

( +5 ) 

would prove effectual, the project, although backed 
by the weight of influence, would have fallen through. 
At the Free Press dinner held at the Town Hall 
on the ISth September 1835. when CapUin J. T. 
Taylor proposed "the enlightenment of the Indian 
people," Dwai^anath Tagore "returned thanks ; and 
said with reference to what had fallen from Captain 
Taykjr, he noticed the institution of the Hindu College, 
founded chiefly through the exertions of his friend 
David Hare, and the natives, and had not with one 
exception received the support of a single civil 

Mr- Kerr, in his Review of Public Instruction 
in the Bengal Presidency from 1831 to 1853, gives 
the following account of the foundation of the 
Hindu College : — 

"The Hindu College was founded in 1816 by the 
Natives themselves in order to meet the growing 
demand for instruction in English- The Raja of 
Burdwan and Baboos Chunder Coomer Tagore, Gopee 
Mohun Deb, Joy Kissen Sing and Gunga Narain Dass 
took the lead among their countrymen in promoting 
the object. Among the early friends of the Institution 
may also be mentioned Raja Radbakant Deb and 
Baboos Radha Madhub Banerjce, Ram Comul Sen and 
Russomoy Dutt." 

. "Several European Gentlemen also took an active 
interest in the establishment of the Institution, parti- 
cularly Sir E. H. East and David Hare. The latter, 
though his comparatively humble station in Ufe and 

D:,-:c.Jt, Google 

I 46 ) 

his naturally unobtrusive disposition kept him in the 
background, was one of the earliest and most active 
promoters of the object." 

Mr. J. C. C. Sutherland visitor of the Hindu 
College reported as follons in 1835 : — 

"I cannot concfude this without again noticing the 
invaluable services which Mr. Hare, my Co-visitorj 
continues to render to the Hindu College and the 
cause of , education generally. Such disinterested 
services { inappreciable as they are by money ) merit, 
I think, some public acknowledgement from the 
general Committee and indeed from the Government 

The Committee of Public Instruction, then com- 
posed of T. B. Macaulay, Sir E. Ryan, H. Shakespear, 
Sir B. H. Malkin, C. H, Cameron, C. W. Smith, 
R. J, H. Birch, J. R. Colvin, R. D. Mangles, C. E, 
Trevelyan, J. Young, Radha Kant Deb and Russomoy 
Dutt, in their report for 1835, stated as follows : — 

"With reference to- what Mr. Sutherland has said 
regarding Mr. Hare, we think it right to call the 
particular attention of Government to the merits of 
this benevolent individual. Of all those who now 
take an interest in the cause of Native Education, Mr. 
Hare was, we believe, the first in the field. His 
exertions essentially contributed to induce the Native 
inhabitants of the capital to cultivate the English 
Language,, not as they had before done, to the slight 
extent necessary to carry on business with Europeans, 
but ^s . the most convenient channel through which 

Digiiizcdt* Google 

■ ( 47 ) 

access was to be obtained to the science of the West. 
He assisted in the formation of the School Society 
and the Hindu College, and he has sijice year after 
year ^patiently superintended the growth of those 
Institutions, devoting to this object, not as might be 
expected, a portion only, but the whole of his time. 
He is constantly present as the encourager of the 
timid, the adviser of the uninformed, the affectionate 
reprover of the idle or bad. Disputes among the 
students are generally referred to him and he is often 
called in as the mediator between parent and child. 
In these and in other ,ways the cause of Native 
Education is much indebted to Mr. Hare for its 
present advance state, and we therefore think tliat he 
is entitled to some recompense from the public. We 
trust that your Lordship in Council will take the 
subject into serious consideration, not only out of 
regard to Mr. Hare's claims, but als6 with a view 
to mark the light in which efforts like his for the 
intellectual and moral improvement of the people are 
considered by Government of India. There is no 
fear of establishing an inconvenient precedent. Few 
will be found like Mr. Hare to bestow years of un- 
remitting labor upon this object, noble, and interesting 
as it is, without any expectation of reward except 
what is to be derived from the gratiiication of bene- 
volent feeling." 

' Lord Audiland was then the Governor General, 
and Mr. H. T, Prinsep, in, his letter to Mr. Sutherland, 
Secretary to the General Committee , of Public 


( 48 ) 

Instruction, under date the 24th August 1836, was 
directed to enquire :— 

"With respect to the recommendation that 
Mr. Hare should receive some public 
acknowledgement of his long and zealous 
services in aid of the cause of education in Calcutta, 
His Lordship in Council, desires me to inquire what 
the Committee intended specifically to recommend in 
behalf of this gentleman." 

We subjoin the following from Mr. Kerr's Records 
of Public Instruction : — 

"Mr, Hare was subsequently appointed a 
Commissioner of the Court of small Causes in Calcutta, 
the duties of which office he continued to discharge 
up to the period of his decease on the first June 
1842, His appointment in the Court of Small Causes 
did not prevent his still devoting a large portion of 
his time to the Hindu College and the School Society's 
School, which be continued to visit daily. It was not 
in the way of direct teaching that he was useful. It 
was the manifest interest he felt in the work, in the 
exertions of the masters and in the progress of the 
students, mixing freely with the latter, hearing 
patiently what they had to say, joining in their amuse- 
ments, and in particular cases, giving them advice, 
always affectionately and assisting them when it was 
in his power in obtaining situations, that made him so 
beloved and so useful. He used also when they were 
sick to visit them at their houses, bringing medicine to 
them, and taking a fatherly and affectionate interest in 

D:,-:c.Jt, Google 

( « ) 

their wel&re. On these occasions it is said even the 
Hindu women would lay aside their reserve and 
consuh him as they would a father or brother. They 
never doubted that the object of this good man, the 
object nearest his heart, was the real welfare of their 

"The writer of this imperfect notice, looking back 
14 years, can see Mr. Hare in his white jacket and 
old fashioned gaiters, or on great days when the 
Committee met, in his blue coat, gliding quitely into 
the College, and finding immediately some object to 
interest him. 

"It has often been said that Mr. Hare though so 
great a friend to education was himself an uneducated 
man. This is not strictly correct. He must have 
received a good plain education. He was a man 
generally well informed. He spoke well that is 
simply and to the purpose. He wrote a good certi- 
ficate-or letter. He had read some of our best authors. 
He might even have passed for a well educated man. 
but for his simplicity and sincerity which were natural 
to him and which raised him above the pedantry of 
learning. With the usual love of paradox he was set 
down as an uneducated man friendly to education. It 
is far however from my wish to persuade any one 
that he was a man of extensive learning. He was chiefly 
remarkable for benevolent feeling and this beyond 
all question he possessed in a very eminent degree. 

"The Natives have not forgotten David Hare. 
They followed him to his grave with tears and heart-- 

Digilizcdb, Google 

( 50 ) 

felt Borrow. They have in various ways since his death 
shewn that they cherish his memory with affectionate 
gratitude. Among these not the least interestii^ is 
the custom which they observe of meeting yearly on 
the anniversary of his death when an appropriate 
address is read in which he is affectionately 

B^oo Kissen Mohun Mullick in his Report of 
the Seal's Free College for 1868—69. 

"I have mentioned at the outset that the Hindu 
College was established in 1817, but I bdieve it did 
not cOme into full operation before 1818 or 1819. 
It was founded during the administration of Marquis 
of Hastings, Govern or- General and Commander-in 
Chief, and was indebted for its success to the muni- 
ficence of Sir Hyde East, the then Chief Justice of 
the late Supreme Court, who was assisted in a greater 
measure by Mr Blacquiere then a Magistrate of Police 
in Calcutta, and an Interpreter in the said Court. He 
succeeded in raising subscriptions to a large amount 
amOng the respectable Natives of this City. Our 
immortal David Hare also strenuously used his 
exertions and influence in securing the support of 
this fundamental work of Native improvement." 

The Medical College was established in 1835. On 
the 1st June of that year. Dr. Bramley delivered 
his inaugural address. He died in 1837, when David 
Hare was appointed Secretary to the College. Dr. 
Bramley while alive gratefully acknowledged that 
•^nany of the difficulties met at the outset were over- 


( 51 ) 

come through the influence and co-operatioD of Mr. 
Hare. A large number of sfudents had received their 
education at the Hindu College or the School Society's' 
school, and Mr Hare, from his intimate coohectioo' 
%vith those institutions, vi&s acquainted not •only'^ith 
the general prejudices and habits of ' thought 'of -the' 
students, but, in many cases, with their individual ' 

history of the character." 

In the report on the state and progress ' of th^ 
Medical College during 1841 the following mentiod* 
of David Hare is to be found. 

"Many changes occured in 1841 in the Institution. 
The late lamented Mr. Hare having resigned the 
secretaryship and managership, Dr. W. B. O'Shaugh- 
nessy took the former and Mr, Siddons the latter. 
We had the benefit at the time of the continuance of 
Mr. Hare's services and well directed zeal by the 
Government being pleased to appoint him an 
Honorary member of the College Council, in which 
situation he was most usefully and actively employed 
till his decease deprived the cause of native education 
of one of its best friends and warmest supporters."' 


Having taken brief notice of David Hare's labors 

for the cultivation of the English language, literature 

and science in Calcutta, let us now proceed to show 

vfhat he did in furtherance of the same cause also for 

DigilicJb, Google 

( 52 ) ^ 

bciiititing and promoting the acquisition of the 
Ven^cular languages, and for giving an impetus to 
qttive female education. 

The School Book Society was esiablished in 1817 
for the preparation, publication and cheap or gratuitous 
supply of works useful in schools and Bemioaries of 
learning in English and oriental languages, but not (o 
furnish religious books. Sir £. H. East, Mr. J. 
H. Harrington, Mr. W. B. Bayley, Dr. Carey. J. 
Pearson, Mr. W. H. Macnaghten, Baboo Tarinee 
Chum Mitter, Radhakai^nt Deb, Ramcomul Sen, and 
several other gentlemen, formed the Committee of 
Managers, to which body other names of European 
and native gentlemen were added from time to time. 
Several missionary gentlemen ( May, Carey, Yates, 
Pearson ) took an active part in the preparation of 
books. The European, Hindu and Mohamedan 
gentlemen were associated to work together in 
harmony and with zeal. The want of Schools 
properly organized for the education of the natives ■ 
had occurred to several European gentlemen 
interested in their intellectual and moral progress. 
The gentlemen forming the Committee of 
the School Book Society began to ventilate this 
question. On the 1st. September 1818 a public 
meetii^ was convened at the Town Hall for the 
purpose of taking this important matter into 
consideration. Mr. J. H. Harrington presided, 
other resolutions, the following were 


( 53 ) 

1. That an association be formed to be deno- 
minated, "The Calcutta School Society," 

2. That its design be to assist and improve existing 
schools and to establish and support any further 
schools and seminaries which may be requisite, with a 
view to the more general diifusion of useful knowledge 
amongst the inhabitants of India of every description 
especially within the provinces subject to the Presidency 
of Fort William. 

3. Tl-iat \i be also an object of this Society to 
select pupils of distinguished talents and merit from 
elementary and other schools and to provide for their 
instruction seminaries of a higher degree with the 
view of forming a body of qualified Teachers and 
Translators who may be instrumental in enlightening 
their countrymen and improving the general system of 
education. When the funds of the Institution may 
admit of it, the maintainance and tuition of such 
pupils in distinct seminaries will be an object of 

4. That it be left to the discretion of a Committee 
of Managers to adopt such measures as may appear 
practicable and expedient for accomplishing the objects 
above stated, wherever local want and facilities may 

That in furtherance of the objects of this Society, 
auxiliary school associations founded upon its principles ' 
be recommended and encouraged throughout the 
country, and specially at the principal cities and 


{ 54 .) 

:: The other resolutions referred to the powers of 
the Managing Committee, their annual election, their 
qualification and constitution- Among the members 
of Committee of managers appointed at this meeting 
we see the names of Sir Anthony Buller, Mr. J. H. 
Harrington,- Dr. Carey, Revd. W. Yates, Mr. E. S. 
Montague, Mr. David Hare, Baboo Radhamadhub . 
Banerjee and Baboo Russomoy Dutt. Lieut. Irvine 
and Mr. Montague were appointed secretaries. In 
three months the Calcutta School Society got Rs. 9899 
as contributions and Rs. 5069 as annual subscription 
chiefly from the Hindus. It appears that David Hare 
paid an annual subscription of Rs. 100 to the Calcutta 
School Book Society, and he was a zealous member 
of both the Societies. Of the Calcutta School Society 
he was the European Secretary, and took particular 
interest in the indigenous Schools which were in his 
charge in 1820. 

The Committee appointed three sub -committees 
vizr^I) for the establishment and support of a 
limited number of regular schools (11) for aiding and 
improving the indigenous schools (III) for the 
education of a select number of pupils in English and 
other branches of tuition. In the second report of the 
School Book Society it is stated, that "it seemed 
from the first establishment of this Society highly 
desirable that some arrangement should exist for 
conveying its' publications with certainty and regu- 
larity to the numerous indigenous schools, and to 
those individuals among the natives who might 

( 55 ) 

value them for their own use or that of their 
families. The former object is now effected, so ht 
as regards the Hindu town of Calcutta, through 
the mechanism of the Calcutta School Society, the 
second department of which has for its province the 
aiding and improving the existing native seminaries of 
Calcutta. Besides the two school ftjoms, one at 
Cullinga presented by the Scrampore mlssonaries, and 
one at Taulya presented by the Baptist missonaries, 
the Committee built four school-rooms in the populous 
part of the city. The one at Arpooly was made over 
to Mr. Hare at his request. In the first report 
(1818-19) the Committee state that "they entertain 
little doubt biit that his (Hare's) perseverance and 
interest with the natives will enable him to raise a 
school of considerable number. His object being to 
educate those only who would otherwise through the 
poverty of their parents be entirely neglected, it is his 
intention to admit none as scholars who are now 
receiving instruction In the indigenous schools." The 
Committee ascertained that there were 190 Bengalee 
Patshallas averaging 22 pupils or aggregating 41S0 
children under instruction. The state of education 
in these schools was extremely deplorable. The 
report adds : — 

"It is eniirely confined to the writing of alphabet 
and figures and a very imperfect knowlec^e of 
arithmetic. Reading is not practiced, for although in 
a very few school two or three of the more advanced 
boys wrote small portions of , the most popular 

( 56 ) 

practical compositions, the manuscript copy is so in- 
acurate that they only became confirmed in a most 
vitiated manner of spelling ; while as regards a know- 
ledge of the sciences or of their relative or moral 
duties, they are entirely without foundation." 

The publications of the School Book Society, in 
which Raj^ Radhakaunt had taken an active part, 
were freely distributed to the school-masters of the 
Bengali Schools. Periodical examinations of the pupils 
were held a' the house of Baboo Goopee Mohun 
Deb, prizes awarded to the distinguished pupils, and 
goorus or school masters were complimented with 
presents of rupees according to the prepress of the 
boys. The ceremony was concluded by" an address 
of ihe Native Secretary on the benefits which the 
School Society was conferrii^. At the first examin- 
ation a native Gentleman remarked as follows : — 
"That if only temporary resident were so much 
interested in the welfare of the inhabitants of this 
country, it would indeed be a shame, if the opulent 
natives of Bengal remain indifferent to the improve- 
ment of their oton countiymen.' ' To bring the Bengali 
Schools under direct and systematic supervision, the 
city was divided into four districts,— to Baboo Doorga 
Churn Dutl was given the control of 30 schools having 
nearly 900 boys, to Baboo Ramchunder Ghose, 43 
schools possessing 896 boys, to Baboo Oomanundun 
Thakoor, 36 schools possessing nearly 600 boys, and 
to Radhacaunt Deb, 57 schools posseasing 1136 boya. 
It is said "that these gentlemen entered very warmly 

( 57 ) 

into the views of the Society and expressed their entire 
willingness to take charge of their respective divisions." 
At the houses of the four superintending gentlemen, 
publications of the School Book Society were kept 
that they might be supplied to the schools whh the 
least possible delay. The superintending gentlemen 
held examinations at least three times annually of 
"the head boys" in each department at their houses, 
and the pupils and goorus were rewarded with books 
and money respectively. 

The Arpooly Patshala continued to be under the 
exclusive superintendence of David Hare. Here our 
friend Krishna Mohun Banerjee squatted down to 
write on plantain leaf. Those who wrote with kkuri 
(chalk) formed the last class. Those who wrote on 
tal (palm) leaf, were the next higher. Those who 
wrote on plantain leaf, were the next higher class, 
and those who wrote on paper, belonged to the highest 
class. In 1S23, the English School was established 
near the Patshala^ whence the best boys were trans- 
ferred to that School. Krishna Mohun was transferred 
to this school, thence tb Hare's School, and in 1824 
thence to the Hindu College. This English School 
was afterwards amalgamated with Hare's School. The 
examination of the indigenous schools of the four 
divisions was held annually at Rajah Radhacaunt's 
House and attended by Natives and Europeans. The 
result of the examination "gave great satisfaction 
and fully proved the efficacy of the plan of superin- 
tendence "when vigorously pursued ; and of the 

( 58 ) 

activity with which it has been prosecuted by their 
(the Committee's) zealous coadjutors." 

The firet report of the Calcutta School Society 
concludes as follows : — 

"Nothing will be wanting to their successors in 
future years but funds and personal exertions to 
carry the benefits of the Society to an indefinite 
extent. Adult and female education, the extension and 
improvement of the indigenous system, and the education 
of a greater number of clever boys in English, as well 
as providing them with the means of acquiring 
scientific education, are all objects of great importance 
to be vigorously pursued in the metropolis and its 
vicinity." It appears that the School Society and the 
School Book Society aimed at the education of the 
lower and higher classes, (see appendix No. 1 J to 
the 1st report.) 

At the nest Annual Meeting of School Society on 
the 2nd May 1821, the Reverend Mr. Keith made 
some remarks on the importance of female education, 
when the Chief Justice stated that he had "the gra- 
tification to know that some natives were to be found 
of the highest respectability, who were giving their 
attention to the subject ; and in some instances 
privately endeavouring in their circles to give effect 
to these designs for the instruction of their females." 
The second report for 1820 states that five regular 
schools h^d been established, and that Mr. Hare's 
School at Atpooly was "literally conducted at hit 
own expense." It, "having the advanUgc oF bia 

( 59 ) 

personal superintendence, prospers." At the annual 
examination, the advanced pupils of the indigenous 
schools, the Society's scholars of the Hindu College, 
and the Bengali girls belonging to a school established 
by the Juvenile Society for the support of Female 
Bengali schools, were collected and received presents, 
As regards the promotion of English education, the 
Society sent 30 boys to the Hindu College for the 
purpose of receiving a higher education there. The 
3rd Report is dated 9th March 1824 and embraces 
1821-23. In 1822 there was a public exami;iation. 
The Report states that "the business commenced 
with a very " interestii^ examination of about 40 
poor Bengali girls, belonging to the Female Juvenile 
Society." * This was followed by the examination 
of the boys educated at the Hindu College at the 
expense of the School Society and of the. advanced 
boys of the indigenous schools who as well as the 
Gooroos received presents. 

The fourth report for 1824-25 states that for 
want of fijnds, the Committee had relinquished the 
management of regular schools except the one at 
Arpooly, which continued to prosper. Mr, Hare 
laid a great stress on proficiency in the Bengali 
language. Those who were promoted to the English 

• Rajah Radhacaunt in his Report saya "several native 
girls educated by the Female Society were also examined, 
whole proficiency in reading and Epelling gave great 
pleamre, and the whole conduced very mucli to the 
•atlsfaction of the company." 

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( 60 ) 

department were obliged to attend the Patshalta in 
the moming and evening and by their proficiency 
in the Bengali language they set an example to the 
pupils of the indigenous schools in the vicinity. One 
of the rules for the admission of pupils into the 
. Calcutta Sehool Society's preparatory English School 
was that every pupil who did not acquire a competent 
knowledge of the Bengali, must attend one of the 
indig'-nous schools for at least two hours daily. 

The next report is for 1826-27-28. Of the Arpooly 
schools, it says "one of the principal advantages 
of this school, is the example which it affords to the 
indigenous schools, and the best proof that can be 
offered of the estimation in which it is held by the 
native inhabitants of the neighbourhood, is the fre- 
quent earnest solicitation from the mOst respectable 
natives to have their children educated in it." As to 
the Engliah department of the Arpooly School, it 
says "most of the students have however made very 
respectable piogress, and some of the most deserving 
promoted to the English school at College Square and" 
others to the Hindu College as a reward of their merit 
and as an encouragement to their school fellows to 
follow their example." It adds, the School Society's 
Ei^lish School at College Square, formerly called the 
Puttuldangah School, still continues to prosper. Again, 
"Ihe Committee are happy to have it in their power to 
say that in general the Society's scholars continue 
to rank among ihe brightest ornaments of the 

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( a ) 

We have alluded to the Calcutta Juvenile Society 
for the establishment and support of Bengali Female 
School. It was established before 1820. There 
was 3 great difficulty in getting native teachers. The 
Reverend W, H. Pearce, the President, says "that in 
Afiil 1820 a well qualified mistress was obtained, and 
thirteen scholars collected, and by degrees the Society 
has been privileged to witness the encouragement not 
so mfWi from the little that has been effected by its 
own exertions, as from the view it presents of what it 
is possible for females in India to accomplish by more 
vigorous and extended cooperation in communicating 
knowledge and happiness among the benighted millions 
of their own sex who surround them." The Society 
proceeded to establish female schools in Shambazar, 
Jaunbazar, Intatti &c. About this time Raja Radha- 
caunt offered the Society the manuscript of a pamphlet 
in Bengali the Stri Siksha Vidhayaka on the subject 
of female education, the object of which was to show 
that female education was customary amOng the higher 
classes of the Hindus, that the names of many Hindu 
females celebrated for their attainments were known, 
and that female education "if encouraged will be 
productive of the most beneficial effects." The 
Committee of the Calcutta Juvenile Society received 
the manuscript and determined on printing it. He not 
only held out this encouragement to female education 
but used to examine girls and boys at the examinations 
which were periodically held at his house. We have 
already mentioned that female education was one of 


( 62 ) 

the objecte of the School Society. This object was 
being promoted foy the Bengal Christian School 
Society formerly denominated the Calcutta Female 
Juvenile Society and it appears that the name was 
changed into the Ladies' Society for Native Female 
Education, to which David Hare was a subscriber, 
and he encouraged native female education by his 
presence at the periodical examinations which were 
held. The British and Foreign School Society of 
X<ondon had written to the Calcutta School Society 
to send out an eminently qualified lady for the purpose 
of introducing a regular system of education among 
the native female population" whom they might not 
engage if circumstances did not authorize their doing 
SO- The lady alluded to was Miss Cooke afterwards 
Mrs. Wilson. The School Society had not funds 
enough to engage the services of Miss Cooke ; she 
accordingly made arrangements with the Church 
Missionary Society and zealously promoted female 
education in Calcutta and elsewhere. The Ladies' 
Society for native female education formed in 1824, 
was made over to the Church Missionary Society, the 
native female schools, of which Miss Wilson took 
charge, but Lhe Ladies' Socieiy for native female 
education was continued as a deliberative body, and 
there were several native subscribers to the society. 
The foundation stone of the Central School was laid 
on the 18th May 1826, on the eastern comer of 
Comwallis Square, to which Raja Buddinauth 
contributed 20,000 rupees. It appears that from 

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( 63 ) 

1824 the Hindu gir)s ceased to be present at the 
examinations held at Rajah Radhacaunt's. The 
School Society perhaps thought it wiser with the 
limited means at its disposal to diiect its attention in 
the first instance to the promotion of mak education. 
Rajah Radhacaunt, in his report dated 25th January 
1829, says "I think it proper to add that in my 
humble opinion the Society has afforded considerable 
benefit to the natives of this country by patronizing 
the indigenous schools in the metropolis. The children 
of all the respectable natives are taught therein, as the 
schools are situated either in their own houses or 
very near them, and the exertions of the Society have 
occasioned a great improvement and their progress 
is increasing daily, for which the continuance of the 
Society's kind attention to the indigenous department 
is very desirable." , 

The School Society and the School Book Society 
were like twin brothers, working in concert and 
helping each other in the work of education. It is 
very fortunate that both the Societies had men of 
eminent abilities and practical judgment at the helm. 

There was no race fcelirg — no religious bigotry. 
The spirit which pervaded both the bodies was that 
harmony and unanimity to promote their utility. 
The attention of the Committees was directed to one 
object, — the amelioration of the intellectual and moral 
condition of the people. In the 8th Report the 
School Book Society say "that while the Society 
pursues a noble object, it pursues it by a method 


( 64 ) 

which is possible to all, whether English, Mussutmaas, 
or Hindus. It insults no opinions, it atUcks no 
religious prejudices, but seeks only to impart general 
knowledge, leavii^ that to work its own way." At 
the second annual meeting, on the motion of Dr. 
Carey, "the special thanks of the meeting were offered 
to the native gentlemen whether in or out of the 
Committee for their seasonable and zealous exertions 
in the various departments of the Society's under- 
takings, without whose valuable cooperation the 
numerous works described in the report could not 
have been accomplished," Another good act of our 
countrymen was in conveying to the Society their- 
disapprobation of certain obscene works which had 
been issued from the native press. 

Mr. Larkins in his speech called this proceeding 
"a voluntary act of several respectable natives." The 
School Book Society continued to act according to its 
original rules. Mr- Holt Mackenzie, at one of the 
annual meetings, stated that "he rejoiced in the 
operation of the Society in the native languages as 
this would prepare the way for the study of the 
English, which ought to be its main and ultimate 
object, for by community of langu^e we could alone 
hope to obtain community of sentimeuts and intereets. 
It was by works in the local dialects conveying the 
elements of European knowledge that the road has 
been paved for the introduction of our language, 
literature and science. The language would readily 
follow when the ideas on which it ivas founded, became 


( 6S ) 

familiar, and' those who tasted the remoter streams 
naturally sought a purer and deeper draught at the foun- 
tain bead. Experience had accordingly shewn that just in 
proportion as the Bei^Il woiis had been diffused and 
relived, was the desire excited for the acquisition of 
the English." In the lltJi report the Committee 
express their conviction "that a good knowledge of the 
English language will greatly contribute to the 
amelioration of India." 

The Institution for the support and encour^ement 
of native School was formed in 1816. Carey 
Marshman and Ward were the managers of the Institu- 
tion. There was a large number of indigenous 
school around Serampore, in Cutwa and Dacca, 
linder the Superintendence of the Institution 
which acted like the Calcutta School Society. David 
Hare was a subscriber to this Institution. As 
to the support of the Natives, the Second Report 
says that "while they ( the Committee ) feel the 
highest gratitude to their own countrymen for 
their goodness, they cannot but rejoice in the great 
accession of native benefactors to the Institution, 
now almost equalling in number diose of our own 

Mr. David Hare who had hitherto been a great 
worker, appeared at the annual meeting of the Calcutta 
School Book Society held on the 5th March 1829 and 
moved a resolution. 

In the year 1827 he was the Secretary of the 
Calcutta School Society and he wrote the following 

( 66 ) 

letter in that capacity to the School Book Society, 
under date the 6th March 1827:- 

"In reply to your letter which I received a few days 
ago, I beg to inform you that in my opinion, several 
of the books published by the School Book Society 
are well calculated for the purposes for which they 
are intended. 

"I think the schools under the patronage of the 
School Society in which these have been almost the 
only books used, have derived considerable advantage 
from them, and I am convinced the progressive 
improvement which has been experienced in the Native 
School under our patronage could not have been 
effected without them. 

"I believe there is no other Institution in Calcutta 

that publishes books of the same description; and I 

think the friends of education in this country are 

• much indebted to your Society for the regular supply 

it has afforded. 

"The books that have been chiefly used by the 
School Society, and with which I am best acquainted, 
are of the elementary kind, in Bengali and Ei^Iish, 
and I really do not recollect any alterations 
of consequence in these books that I can 

"I would suggest the propriety of the Society's 
republishing small editions of Goldsmith's abridgments 
of the Histories of England, Rome, and Greece in 
English, and some small English reading-books, con- 
taining amusing tales and histories, such as are fit to 

( 67 ) 

read after the spelling book- Books of this kind are 
much required in this country, and I am confident 
a considerable number would be disposed of at a 
moderate price. 

"The series of reward books which you propose to 
publish would certainly be of considerable use in the 
way you mention, to reward diligent scholars, stimulate 
their companions to imitate them, and encourage the 
Native Youth in general to read and study in their 
own houses, which are very desirable objecu. Permit 
me however lo say thai to have this effect, it will be 
necessary that tbe tmnslations be very particularly 
attended to and superintended by some Native of 
abiUty, well acquainted with both lai^uages in order 
to render them in a familiar current dialect. Without 
this in my opinion, these books would be of very 
little use. 

The School Society will doubtless be happy to 
embrace the opportunity of procuring these books for 
rewards at their different examinations &c., should 
your Society publish them ; but our finances are in 
such a low state that we cannot engage to take any 
particular quantity. That must depend entirely on the 
price of the books and the state of our funds at the 

I am sorry that I have not at present any manus- 
cript that I can supply you with or I assure you I 
should be extremely happy to do so. 

At the Annual meeting of the School Book Society 
held on the 24th February 1829. 

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( 68 ) 

Mr. David Hare stated that though' he had not 
words, at command fully to express his views and 
feelings, yet he must say that he knew of no Institution 
more calculated to benefit the Natives of India than 
the Calcutta School Book Socie^ ; and that in saying 
this he was expressii^ the sentiments of the great 
majority of the native gentlemen of Calcutta vriih 
vtbom he was in the habit of constant and familiar 

This is the first time that David Hare made known 
to the public his "constant and familiar intercourse," 
with native gentlemen who looked upon him not as a 
foreigner but as one of their "Jatbhye" Dr. H. H. 
Wilson Secretary of the G. C. P. I. wrote to the 
School £ook Society on the 1st July 1829, proposing 
a new series of books in consultation with Mr. Hare 
and others. 

In the rapid sketch of the Life of Rajah Radhacaunt 
Deb Bahadoor published in Calcutta 1859 the following 
notice of Mr. David Hare is to be found. 

"He (Radhakaunt) cheerfully accepted the post of 
Honorary Native Secretary to the late School Society 
and strenuously exertedbimself with that philanthropist 
the bte David Hare to promote vernacular education 
in this country, by introducing order and system 
into indigenous schools, ?o bringing them under an 
active superintendence, and testing their progress by 
periodical examinations." 

Baboo Kisscn Mohun Mulllck, one of the oldest 
inhabitants of the city, in his report of the Seal's Free 

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( M ) 

College for 1868-69, gives the following account of 
the early vernacular education : 

"It ' ia well known that in former times our 
children had to resort only to private Patsalas kept 
by Gooroomohasayas, who chiefly came from Burdwan 
District to teach the rudiments of the Bengali language 
and of arithmetic. The number of students then varied 
from 40 to 60 in each, and their schooling fees were 
2 to 8 annas a head according to their grades, besides 
perquisites which were given to Gooroomohasoys on 
occasions of Hindu holidays. 

"The first course consisted in scribling alphabets 
' on the ground and palm leaves, and when they had 
learnt the alphabets and spelling and could foim 
syllables and figures, they would be promoted to Ihe 
next class where they were taught addition, subtraction, 
multiplication, juma-wasil-baky and other calculation, 
and to write on plantain leaves, letters of corres- 
pondence, and to read certain set works in MS., such 
as Gooroodukhina, Prayer to Gunga, &c., and at 
last, to the highest grade, the forms of Zemindaree 
records and compositions on paper, chiefly for the 
sake of improvement in caligraphy, were taught. It 
cannot be denied that the rules for calculations 
practised in our patshalas proved to be remarkably 
useful in after-life, as they are appreciated even to 
this day by all men" of figures : but unfortunately as 
regards literature it was a complete misnomer, the 
pupil left his school without his mind being expanded 
so as to be in a position to reason or foi^n that idea 

Digiiizcdt* Google 

( '0 ) 

of things which a systematic education alone can teach, 
He had no command of language of his own to enable 
him to compose, nor was he in a situation to construct 
sentences which were either correct, or fully intell^ible 
so far as grammar or even orthography, phraseology 
or consistency in language was concerned ; no more 
could he comprehend any woi^ or writing, couched 
in any thii^ better than aii ordinary language, 
expressive of dignified ideas. In fact every writer had 
his own way of spelling words and his language was 
not Oiily desultory but mixed up with Persian terms 
and technicalities handed down to us from time im- 
memorial by the predecessors of our present rulers. 
These much to be deplored defects were the more 
perceptible in the personal intercouse of our Hindu 
laity so to speak. 

"In their conversation or address, you would find 
them struggle for getting at adequate or decent terms 
to express their thoughts with. The chain of their 
discourse was either left off incomplete or with gaps 
for the listener to supply. What was the first move 
then made for removing this stigma upon native 
emdition, illiterate as the natives were in the first 
instance, in their mother tongue, the proper training 
in which ought to form the basis of the intellectual 
advancement of Our childrem ? Why, my young 
friends, a most successful change was brought on by 
that most noble, and truly philanthropic friend Of 
native education, David Hare, who as is well known, 
had long established himself as a dock and watch- 

( 71 ) 

maker in the locality now called after him "Hare Street." 
This gentleman to wlioae memory our countrymen are 
and ever shall be indebted for his paving the way to that 
elevated position which our children have since attained, 
in a point of view actually devoted his heart and soul 
and literally sacrificed all his worldly possessions to 
that laudable end. Being struck with the defective 
modes of teaching, and sensible as he was of the 
susceptibility of our native youths for improvement, 
David [fare established at his own expense a charity 
Patshala in Thunthunia near the Kalitola for training 
up Hindu children under reformed modes of tuition- 
Pundits were appointed who introduced elementary 
and other works in print suited to juvenile capacity 
and thus correct spelling and reading were for the 
first time taught them to advantage. About 500 boys 
were enlisted ; and for ensuring their regular atten- 
dance and encouraging the prosecution of thier studies, 
he distributed monthly among them 4 annas to 1 rupee 
according to their deserts. To the neglect of his 
worldly occupations, David Hare was every day seen 
from 11 to 5 o' clock, sometimes later, personally 
supervising the conduct Of the duties assigned to the 
Pundits, and caressing the children when occasion 
required. As might have been expected a moderate 
proficiency was gained by the students of his Patshala, 
Similar printed works were then introduced as I 
believe at the recommendation of Mr, Hare into our 
private Patshalas then existing in Calcutta, which used 
to be visited from time to time by the Pundits in his 


( 72 } 

employ, and in that of the Government, and rewards 
were ghen to GooroOmOhasaya for their encouraging 
the improved system." 

We have alluded to the establishment of the 
Academic Association which afterwards was removed 
to Hare's School. After Derozlo's resignation, Hare 
was elected President. The meetings were held 
once, a week and lasted for several hours, after which 
Hare sometimes walked with some of the members On 
moonlight night and talked On different matters. 

On the 12th March 1838, in compliance with the 
requisition of Ran^opaul Ghose, Tarachand Chu<ier- 
burtee, Ramtonoo Lahiree and others, a meeting of 
the Hindu Gentlemen was held at the Sanscrit 
College, and the Society for the Acquisition of 
General Knowledge was established, with the object 
of promoting mutual improvement, and for this 
purpose it was resolved that Monthly Meetings were 
to be held, at which written or verbal discourses were 
to be delivered on subjects previously chosen by the 
discourse rs, excluding religious discussions of all 

David Hare was present at this meeting and was 
elected Honorary Visitor. He attended the meetings 
regularly, as he did those of the Academic Association. 

The Society publisned three vols, of the selections 
of discourses read at the meetings from 1840 to 1843 
and following is the list of the papers published : — 

. 1. On the nature and importance of Historical 
studies by the Reverend K. M. Banerjea. 


( 73 ) 

2. On the importance Of cultivating the Verna- 
cular lai^uage by Baboo Woodoy Churn Addy. 

3. On Poetry by Baboo Rajnarain Deb. 

4. A Topc^raphical and Statistical sketch of 
Bancoorah by Baboo Hutuchunder Ghose. 

5. On Knowledge by Boboo Gourmohun Doss. 

6. Condition of Hindu Women by Baboo Mohesh 
Chunder Deb. 

7. Brief outline of the History of Hindustan 
4 Nos. by Baboo Gobind Chunder Sen. 

8. Descriptive Notices of Chittagong 4 Nos. by 
Baboo Gobin Chunder Bysack. ' 

9. State of Hindustan under the Hindus 5 Nos. 
by Baboo Peary Chand Mittra. 

10. Refonn Civil and Social among educated 
natives by the Reverend K" M, Banerjea. 

11. Plan for a new Spelling Book by Baboo 
Gobind Chunder Bysack. 

12. Descriptive Notices of Tippera by Baboo 
Gobind Chunder Bysack. 

13. A few desultory remarks on the "Cursory 
review of the Institutions of Hinduism affecting the 
interest of the female sex," contained in the Revd. 
K, M. Baiierjea's Prize Essay on Native Female 
Education by Baboo Peary Chand Mittra, 

14. On the Physiology of Dissection by Baboo 
ProsonO Coomar Mittra. 

Finding that vernacular education had made some 
progress the Managing Committee of the Hindu 
College determined on opening a Patshala near the 

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( 74 ) 

Institution. The foundation stone was laid by David 
Hare at the close of 1839-40. The ceremony was 
Opened by him, and after his speech Sir E. Ryan, then 
President of the Committee of Public lastruction, 
complimented him in the highest terms. When Hare 
and Radhacaunta labored to improve the indigenous 
schools, vernacular education was at a very low ebb. 
In the Patshala, Grammar, Geography, Geometry, 
Ethics and other branches were taughtl The Patshala 
was indebted to the zealous superintendence of Baboo 
Prosono COmar Tagore. After Hare's death the 
Patshala was nof well looked after- The Bengal 
Spectator of the 16th July 1843 wrote as follows : — 

"■Who could have thought that said David Hare, 
taking his diurnal walk in the portico of the Patshala, 
with eyes glowing with benevolence; and a 
countenance mild and serene absorbed in maturing 

an acquaintance with the minutiae and meditating 
on measures and plans calculated to impart 
strength and solidity to its different departments, 
that it should fall into such a sad condition ? 
Mr. Hare must no doubt have felt confident of its 

success, to which with his quiet zeal and modest 
philanthrophy, he could have contributed. Indeed 
his expectations as to the gradual diifusion of the 
knowledge of the vernaculais were so strong that he 
said to a friend, he might be instrumental in the work 

of native female education if he lived ten years more." 


( 75 ) 

David Hare was always desirous of serving the 
country, and although he worked incessantly as an 
educator, he lost no opportunity of contributing his 
mite to the social and political amelioration of Bengal. 
On the 5th Jauuary 1835 a Public Meeting of the 
inhabitants of Calcutta was held at the Town Hall 
for petitionii^ the Governor General in Council or 
the Legislature to repeal the press regulations passed 
in 1824, and to remove the restraints upon Public 
Meetings, and also for petitioning the British Parlia- 
ment upon the subject of the late Act passed for 
renewing the Company's Charter, The proceeding of 
this meeting will be found in the Calcutta Monthly 
Journal ( vol. I. ) The speakers at the meeting were 
Messera T. Turton, E. M. Gordon C. S. T. 
Dickens, Dwarkanath Tagore, Russic Krishna MuUick- 
Longueville Clake, Mr. Burkinyoung and Mr. David 
Hare. The last named gentleman in moving "that 
the sheriff do sign on behalf of the inhabitants the 
respective petitions now adopted by this meeting" 
spoke as follows : — 

"Gentlemen, allow me to say that when I look 
around me and see so many natives coming forward 
in association with Europeans to support their rights, 
I feel this to be a proud day for India ( cheers ). 
I have seen very many meetings in this city, but I 
never recollect seeing one more numerous or more 
respectable. It has also been my lot to ha^e attended 

D:,-:c.Jt, Google 


a great number of Public Meetings in England, and 
if I recollect it was the custom for the sheriff to 
sign the peltion on behalf of all." 

Mr. David Hare was one of the Committee for 
carrying out the objects of ttie meetiilg. 

On the 8th July 1835 a Public Meeting was held 
at the Town Hall for the purpose of adopting such 
measures aa may be best calculated to secure trial by 
Jury in civil cases in Supreme Court, and likewise for 
considering the expediency of extending and prompting 
the Jury system throughout the country. We find 
that Mr. David Hare was appointed one of the 
Committee for the purpose of preparii^ the . draft of 
an Act or suggestions to be forwarded with the 
petition to the Governer General of India in Council 
and also to adopt such other measures from time to 
. time as may be necessary to further the proposed 

On the 18th June 1836, there was a large meeting 
of the inhabitants of Calcutta, and its suburbs, for 
the purpose of petitioning Parliament against Act XI 
of the Legislative Council repealing the I07th Sec. 
of 53rd of George III chapter 153, whereby British 
subjects were deprived of their right of appealing 
to English Courts against the decisions of the pro- 
vincial Courts. The speakers at this meeting were 
T. Turton, Dwarkanath Tagore, J. H. Stocqueler, 
T. Dickens, Wyborn, W. P. Grant. L. Clarice, S. 
Smith and others. Mr, David Hare moved the 
following resolution : "That it is expedient to have 

( 77 ) 

an agent authorized of the petitioners and inhabitants 
of Calcutta for the purpose of presenting the Petition 
upon and advocating their general interests, and the 
Committee now appointed be authorized and requested 
to prepare the requisite powers and instructions for 
such agent." 

In 1835 the emigration of Indian labourers to 
Mauritius and Bourbon commenced. It was found 
that many labourers who emigrated did not do so 
of their free will, — they ware deceitfully or forcibly 
sent away. About one hundred or more coolies 
bad been "kept in durance in a house in Calcutta." 
We remember they were in a house in Puttuldanga, 
where Mr. Hare used to go almost daily. On seeing 
the coolies locked up, he consulted Mr. L. Clarke, 
who accompanied Mr. Hare to Puttuldanga, and they 
were instrumental in the liberation of the coolies who 
had been kept in durance against their will. When 
the exposure of an evil commences, supporters come 
from all sides. The enquiry was intensified which led 
to a public demonstration at a public meeting held at 
the Town Hall, on the 10th July 1838. The speakers 
were Bishop Wilson, Dr. Charles, Reverend T. Boaz, 
Mr. T. Dickens, Mr. L. Clarke, Dwarkanauth Tagorc, 
Dr. Duncan Stewart and other, and the meeting 
resolved that a petition be presented to the President 
in Council. In consequence of this petition the 
Government appointed a Committee in August 1838, 
to enquire into the abuses alleged to exist in the 
export of coolies to the colonies Of Mauritius and 

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Demerar?. Among the witnesses who gave their 
evidence before this Committee was David 
Hare. The majority of the Committee reported as 
follovrs : — 

"We conceive it to be distinctly proved beyond 
dispute that the coolies and other natives exported 
to Mauritius and elsewhere were ( generally speaking } 
induced to come to Calcutta by gross misrepresen- 
tation and deceit practised upon them by ijative 
crimps styled DuSadars and Arkatties employed by 
European and Anglo-Indian undertakers and shippers, 
who were mostly cognizant of these frauds, and who 
received a very considerable sum per head for each 
coo lee exported." 

The emigration of coolies has since been placed 
on a proper footing, and finding industrial residence 
at Mauritius and other colonies profitable, the labour- 
ers now emigrate voluntarily, and there is a Urge 
number who are settled at Mauritius. 

Another movement in which Hare took a very 
, active part, for the sake of the cultivation of the 
English language and the administration of Justice 
was the preparation and presentation of a petition to 
the Governor- General of India in Council, praying 
that the Judges of the Muffusil Courts may have the 
option of using the English Language equally with 
Persian and Bengali in the pleadings and proceedings 
of the Courts of Jusiice of Bengal. 

The reply which the Managers of the Hindu 
College received was as follows : — 


( 79 ) 



The Governor General of India in Council, has 
had under his consideration the petition presented 
by the managers and students of the Hindu College 
and their parents, guardians and connections praying 
that the option of using the English Language equally 
with Persian and Bengali in pleadings and proceedings 
of the Courts of Justice of Bengal maj be extended 
by legislative enactment if not universally at least 
experimentally in certain districts adjoining to the 
capita], as an encouragement to the prosecution of 
the study of that langu^e. 

His Lotdship in Council, in the presenj instance 
has much satisfaction in being able to assure the 
petitioners that the subject of their application has 
already engaged the atteiition of the Legislative 
Council of India, that enactment is now under 
consideration which will provide all that is solicited 
or that can be desired in respect to the admission 
of the English Language for the transaction of 
business in the Courts and Public Offices of the 
country, whenever the public convenience and the 
interests of the parties concerned may admit of 
its use. 

Council Chamber, I have &c-. 

The lOik February \S35, H. T. Prinsep, 

Secretary to Government. 

Clooglc ■ 

( so ) 

When the British India Society teas established 
in England, a large meeting was held here to co- 
operate with that Society in 1839. Hare attended the 
meeting and seconded the resulution moved by Rajah 
Kake Krishna, to that effect. 

He was a member of the Agricultaral and Horti- 
cultural Society of India from 1836, and was a regular 
attendant at the Monthly Meetings. He was also a 
member of the Asiatic Society and a subscriber to 
the District Charitable Society. 

On the 31st May 1842, Mr. Hare had an attad 
of cholera. He was not frightened in the least d^ree. 
He said to his sirdar bearer "gcand tell Mr. Grey to 
prepare a cof!in for me." The surder bearer did not 
take the message to Mr. Grey. Inspite of medical 
aid, Hare died the next day, telling Prosonna Mitter, 
a sub-assistant surgeon not to apply the mustard 
poultice again, as he wanted to die peaceably. TTie 
news of Mr. Hare's death was received with heartfelt 
sorrow by every one, and those who knew him were 
full of tears. On the 1st June 1842, Mr. Grey's 
house, (where Mr, Hare lived and died) was full of 
Hindu gentlemen, among whom were Rajah Radha- 
kant, Baboo Prosono Comar Tagore, Baboo Russo- 
moy Dutt and many others, Baboo Prosono Comai 
Tagore had made arrangements for Mr. Hare's funeral. 
As soon as the Reverend Dr. Charles arrived, the pro- 
cession moved- Several mourning carri^es were 
full of children, and about five thousand Hindus, 
all sorrowful, sobbing and weeping, followed the 

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hearse. The day was a very wet day, but it did 
not interfere with the large gathering unknown in 
this city. 

The tomb was raised by a rupee subscription. 
The amount required was raised in no time. Sub- 
scriptions were still offered but declined. 

The inscription on the tomb is as follows: — 

"This Tomb erected by His Native friends and 
Pupils encloses the mortal remains 
of David Hare, 

"He was a Native of Scotland and came to this 
city in the year 1800, and died 1st June 1842, 
aged 67, after acquiring a competence by probity 
and industry in his calling as a watchmaker. He 
adopted for his own the country of his sojourn 
and cheerfully devoted the remainder of his life 
with unwearing zeal and benevolence, to one per- 
vading and darling object on which he spared 
no personal trouble, money or influence viz: — the 
education and moral improvement of the Natives 
of Bengal, Thousands of whom regarded him in 
life with filial love and reverence and lament him 
in death, as their best and most disinterested friend 
who was to them even as a Father." 


We have to announce with the deepest sorrow the 
death of this philanthropist and benefactor of the 

Digiiizcdt* Google 

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Hindus. He was attacked with cholera at I o' clock 
on the night of the 31st ultimo and breathed his 
last at about 6 o' clock p. m. On the 1st Instant at the 
age of 67 years. The intelligence of his death was so 
sudden that it actually thunder-struck many of his 
native friends who feeling . the pain of his separation 
flocked in numbers to pay their last respects to his 
remains. As long as his coffin was at Mr. Grey's, it 
was actually surrounded by Hindus, most of whose 
countenances exhibited a deep gloOm of sorrow and 
an absence of mental serenity, some of them were 
examining his body, some dwelling on his unparallelled 
benevolence, some expressii^ their unfeigned regret 
caused by the sad event, several of them became desir- 
ous of taking a cast of their benefactor, for which 
purpose they went and brought Mr, Moody, but that 
gentleman after examining the face Of Ihe deceased 
was of opinion that the task at the period could not 
be executed with success. At 5J o' clock, the number 
of mourners was considerably increased, who all 
followed the hearse to the square of the Hindu College 
where about five thousand natives assembled to witness 
the funeral, notwithstanding the unfavorable state of 
the weather. 

Mr. David Hare arrived in this city in 1800 as a 
watchmaker and after following that profession for 
some years he made over his concern to Mr, Grey. 
Instead of returning to his native country with the 
competence which he had acquired, he resolved 
to devote his fortune and time to the promotion of 

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native education. He therefore assisted in the eatablish- 
meat of the School Society, and adopted such 
measures as the circumstances of that period could 
admit for the 'cultivation of Bengali language, He 
began to frequent the Patshalas located in the different 
parts of the town and encouraged the instnictors and 
pupils to persevere in their respective labors by dona- 
tions of books and money. He also established a 
Patshala at Potuldanga, with a view to educate a laige 
number of Hindu boys in a systematic way under his 
direct supervision which we believe must have produced 
beneficial results. He was equally zealous in regard 
to the promotion of English Education. Finding 
that the Vernaculars were deficient in works capable 
of expanding the mind, he had since retiring from 
business been cultivating acquaintance with the 
wealthy and the respectable natives of this city and 
• urging them to communicate to the rising generation 
a knowledge of Western Literature and science, and 
ultimately succeeded in securing their assistance in the 
formation of the Hindu College in 1816. He took 
the warmest interest in the well-being of this Institu- 
tion and the valuable services which he rendered to it 
will constitute one of the most prominent and never 
to be foigotten facta in the annals of his history. 
As a manager, he was not content with visiting it 
periodically, but came and spent a great portion of 
his time there ahnost evejy day— enquiring after every 
pupil in regard to his progress, habits of attendance, 
health, conduct in the College and at home — reproving 

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( S« ) 

with a -parental atfection the inattentive and the ill- 
behaved, encotir^in and rewarding the meritorious 
and the distinguished, settling all disputes between 
one boy and another, and lending a patient ear to the 
requests and recommendations of parents and guar- 
dians. He also watched with intense attention the 
working of the details connected with the management 
of Institution, and did his best to remove defects 
and adopt improvement wherever such steps were 

He was no less indefatigable in his exertions in 
promoting the welfare of the School Society's School, 
from which the Hindu College is said to have received 
a large supply of excellent boys. As far as pecuniary 
support is concerned, this school is perhaps indebted 
more to his generosity than to the Society's funds. 
Latterly when he could not attend it during the day 
On account of his appointment in the Court of 
Retjuest, he spent his evenings there making searching 
enquiries in regard to every thing connected with the 
school- His connection with the Medical College 
gave him an opportunity of blunting the edge of 
native prejudices against anatomical operations by 
means of pri\-ate intercourse with old Hindu gentle- 
men, whose readiness to allow their sons to receive 
instructions in that institution would not otherwise 
have been so soon intimated. The respect and esteem 
in which he was held and the regret expressed for 
his. loss by the Professors and the pupils of the 
Medical College are circumstances which clearly shew 

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the value set on hia services. Mr. Hare was interested 
in all educational establishment instituted for ' the 
amelioration of the native mind and was always 
forward to render them such support as he could. 

But it is not merely as the originator and prCHnoter 
of native education that his memory is entitled to our 
gratitude. His anxiety and eagerness lo heal the sick — . 
to console the unfortunate — to advise the uninformed — 
to protect the help'ess — to assist the needy, have^ 
indeared his name to the old, the young, and the, 
women of this city and we know not of another 
individual having so devoted himself and in sudi an 
unpretending manner, to the good of a foreign race, 
at the sacrifice of his own time and money and so 
centred all the enjoyments of life in the gralification- 
of benevolent feeling as the subject of our notice. 

Besides possessing the excellent virtues on 
which we have slightly touched, he had a public 
spirit which all must admire. In many of the 
good works done in this city he had a principal 
hand. His zealous and energy in memorializing for 
the introduction of the Trial by Jury in Civil Cases, 
the Emancipation of the press, the amendment of 
some of the objectionable clauses of the existing 
Charter and the abolition of the Persian language in 
the Courts of Justice are well known to all. He 
made most strenuons efforts to expose ihe abuses of 
the Cooly-trade and was instumental in liberating a 
number of Dhangurs unjustly confined at Patuldanga. 
flf attended and took part in all meetings, convened 

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for petitioning against grievances or solicitif^ for 
good measures. He was connected with almost all 
the societies of Calcutta, and did all that he could to 
further their interests. 

Such being the character and acts of Mr. Hare, 
we, for whose welfare he lived, ought to come forward 
and do all that lies in our power to perpetuate his 
n\emory. Charges of apathy are every day preferred 
against us. If we do not embrace an early opportu- 
nity of giving vent to the feelings which we entertain 
towards that benevolent individual and adopt the 
necessary means of transmitting his image to posterity, 
Our national character is sure to suffer depreciation in 
the estimation of the world. We therefore entreat 
the respectable Hindu inhabitants of this city to lose 
no time in convening a public meeting for the 
purpose at the theatre of the Medical College, which 
we think would be the most appropriate place. We 
would recommend the erection of a statue near the 
proposed monument with a subscription to be raised 
exclusively from the native community. Though 
other tributes suitii^ the ideas of utilitarians may be 
named, yet none of them can so effectively convey 
the recollection of the deceased and excite feelings of 
gratitude and admiration for him as the one we have 


The late Mr. David Hare, — On Wednesday last, 
the 31st of May, Mr. David Hare, so well known as 

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( 87 ) 

the supporter of Native Education, was removed by 
attack of cholera at the age of sixty seven. 

Perhaps no individual in India has ever pursued 
so remarkable a career as the late David Hare. He 
came out to this country about forty two years ago, 
as a clock and watchmaker and silver smith, and 
having realized a handsome competence retired from 
business about the year 1816. Instead of returning 
to his Native land like the rest of his countrymen, 
he invested his property in land in Calcutta and 
remained in the country. His retirement from 
business happened just at the spirit of public 
improvement, by publicly encouragii^ the education 
of the Natives, which, before that period had been 
considered incompatible with the stability of the 
British authority in India. No sooner was the Head 
of the Government known to be favourable to the 
spread of knowledge than private individuals and 
associatk>ns hastened to devote their time and atten- 
,tion to the object. Among others, Mr. Hare 
established an Ei^Iish School, which he is said to 
have long supported from his own resources ; and he 
was One of the chief instruments in promoting the 
establishment of the Hindoo College. Thus he 
gradually became identified with the cause of Nati'.e 
education ; — as conducted on the principle of exclud- 
ing religion, — and acquired the confidence, we might 
almost add, the aff^ection of the Native youth of the 
metropolis to a degiee never known before. The 
modem class of Natives who have grown up under 

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the tuition of the Government Institutipns in Calcutta, 
regarded him with the veneration of a parent ; and 
he enjoyed a degree of influence in Native society 
which no unofHcial person had ever before acquried. 
Mr. Hare affords the remarkable — and in India the 
solitary — instance of an individual, without any refine- 
ment of education, without intellectual endowments, 
without place, or power, or wealth, acquiring 
and retaining for a long series of years one of 
the most important and influential positions in 
Native society, simply by a constant endeavour to 
promote the improvement of the rising generation. 
That he was the means of doing much good among 
the natives, and that the cause of Native education 
in the metropolis is greatly indebted to his constant 
and unremitting attention, will be readily admitted 
by all. At the same time, it must be confessed with 
deep regret, that his invetirate hostility to the Gospel, 
produced an unhappy effect on the minds of the 
Native youths who were so largely under his influence, 
by indisposing their minds to all enquiry after 
religious truth and inducing a general scepticism, the 
melancholy consequences of which will long continue 
to be apparent in the opinion and conduct of the 
generation of enlightened Nalive. 

On the 17th June 1841 Rajah Kissennath Roy 
called a public Meeting at the theatre of the Medical 

t, Google 

( 89 ) 

College, for the purpose of determining on the most 
suitable testimonial to be voted to the memory of 
David Hare. The meeting was numorously attended. 
Baboo Prosono Coomar Tagore took the chair. Baboo 
Degumber Mitter, Captain D. L. Richardson, Baboo 
Kissory Chand Mittra, and the Reverend K. . M, 
Banerjea spoke at some length on the invaluable 
services rendered by the deceased to the cause of 
native education and on the warm interest taken by 
him in the genera! welfare and advancement of the 
natives. After some discussion it was resolved to 
vote a statue by a public subscrition to be raised from 
amoi^ the native community and to appoint a 
Committee of the following gentlemen with power 
to add to their number. 

Rajah Krishna Nauth Roy 

Rajah Satwa Churn Ghosal.' 

Baboo Debendia Nath Tagore 

Baboo Nundloll Singhe. 

Baboo Ham Chunder Ghose 

Baboo Sreekissen Singhe. 

Baboo Boycantnath Roy Chowdr}-. 

Baboo Ramgopal Ghose 

Reverend K, M. Banerjea 

Baboo Tarachand Chuckroburtte. 

Baboo Degumber Mitter. 

Baboo Ramapersad Roy. 

The names of Koylas Chunder Dutta, Ramchunder 
Mitter, Dinonath Dutt, Brojonauth Dhur and Pear^-- 
chand Mittra, were subsequently added. Hurru- 

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chuader Ghose was appointed Secretary to the 

The statue having been ordered and executed was 
originally placed in the quadrangle of the Sanscrit 
College but is now to be seen in the open ground 
between the Presidency College and Hare's School. 



Of returning to enjoy it in ftis Native hand, 


To the close of his irreprochable and useful life 
He made the improvement entellectual and moral 
as well as the condition in sickness 
No less than in health 


The object of His constant Care 
And unwearing solicitude 


For the memory of 

Their constant Generous and most Disinterested 


Have erected this statue. 


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( 91 ) 

The Committee were much indebted to the %-a!u- ' 
able advice and aid of Messrs G. & C. Grant of this 


This Tablet erected by the teachers and students 
of this school is sacred to the memory of David 
Hare, who subduing the natural desire to return to 
the land of his birth devoted his fortune, his energies 
and bis life to the best interests of India, his adopted 
country where he will ever be affectionately re- 
membered as the Father of the Native Education. 
Bom in England 1775 — died in Calcutta June 
1st 1842. 

Ah ! warm philanthropist faithful friend ! 
Thy life devoted to One generous end, 
To bless the Hindoo mind with British lore, 
And truth's and nature's faded lights restore ! 
If for a day that lofty aim was crossed 
You grieved like Titus that a day was lost ! 
Alas ! it is not now a few biief honors 
That withholds, a heavier grief o' erpowers 
A nation whom you love'd as if your own 
A life ihat gave the life of life is gone. 

While the Testimonial Committee were busy col- 
lectii^ subscriptions and doing the needful. Baboo 
Kissory Chaiid Mittra proposed to several friends 
that the friends of David Hare should meet annually 
on the 1st of June to commemorate his memory 

Digilizcdb, Google 

( 92 ) 

in 3 suitable manner. In compliance with his requi- 
sition about forty friends of David Hare met at 
Kissory Chand's House in Nimtoliah Street. Baboo 
Ramchunder Mittra was called to the chair. In 
moving the first resolution the Rev. Krishnamohun 
Banerjea spoke at great length oh the disinterested- 
ness and philanthrophy of Mr. Hare as evidenced in 
his indefatigable exertions in the cause of Native 

The other speakers were' Baboo Ram Chunder 
Mittra, Ramgopal Ghose, and Eshwara Chunder 
Goopta, who respectively dwelt on the high character 
and virtues of Mr. Hare, and his claims to the rever- 
ence and gratitude of the Natives, 

The resolutions which were adopted are as 
follows : — 

That an annual meeting of the friends of the 
late Mr. D. Hare be held on the 1st June being the 
anniversary of his death, for the purpose of comme- 
morating the disinterestedness and the philanthrophy 
which were conspicuous in his life for more than a 
quarter of a century and for giving expression to 
those feelings of gratitude aud respect with which 
his indefatigable aud unparalkled exertions in the 
cause of Hindoo education ought ever to be remem- 
bered by the Natives of India. 

That a lecture, or discourse On some point con- 
nected with the intellectual and moral improvement 
of India be read at the annual meeting by a gentle- 
man previously appointed. 

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( 93 ) 

That the following gentlemen, with power to add 
to their number, be appointed a Committee for ar- 
nmgii^ the details connected with the annual meet- 
ings ; and for taking those measures which are cal- 
culated to commemorate his memory viz. Rev, K. 
M. Banerjea, Baboo Ramchundra Mittra, Ramgopaul 
. Ghose, Pearychand Mittra with Baboo Kissory Chand 
Mittra as their secietary. 

The second anniversary was held at the Fouzdari 
Balakhana on the 1st June 1944. 

Baboo Ramgopaul Ghose in the Chair. 

The Secretary reported that the Committee whose 
duties were not confined to arranging the prelimina- 
ries of the anniversary meetings but were also to 
take such measures as were calculated to perpetuate 
the memory of their departed benefactor, had held 
two meetings during the past year. At the first of 
these meetings the subject of writing a memoir of 
D. Hare had been considered. In order to enable 
the Committee to accomplish the above object, it 
had been resolved that a number of questions formed 
with a view to elicit information regarding the early 
part of Mr. Hare's life should be sent to Mr. Joseph 
Hare of London, with a request that he would be 
pleased to reply to them at his earliest convenience. 
In conformity with this resolution the questions had 
been prepared and sent to Mr. Joseph Hare thiough 
Baboo Rajaram Roy but the Committee regretted 
that the replies had not been received. As this how- 
ever might be owing to the nonreceipt of the communi 

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cation in question in consequence of the departure 
of Mr. Joseph Hare from England for the G>ntinent, 
the Conumttee had resolved on reiterating their re- 
quest as they were aoxious that a faithful and if 
possible a complete biography of D. Hare should be 
prepared as soon as possible, it being one of the best 
means of perpetuating his memory and being but a 
duty which they owed to the departed friend of 
their country. 

The Revd. K. M. Banerjea delivered a discourse. 
The Secretary then submitted certain resolutions 
relative to the opening of an annual subscription (o 
be denominated the Hare Prize Fund and to be 
devoted to giving premia to best treatises in the 
Bengali language to be chosen and advertized by the 
Committee. On the motion of the Revd. K. M. 
Banerjea. the subject was referred to the Committee 
for further consideration and that they were request- 
ed to carry out the suggestions if they were feasibie. 

At a meeting of the subscribers to the Haie Prize 
fund held in the Town Hall on the Hth April 1845. 
Baboo Debendronath Tagore in the Chair. 
Read the following. 

Report of the Commitiee appointed on the 1st. 
June 1843 by a public meeting for the purpose of 
perpetuaijng the memory of David Hare. 

At a meeting of the Committee held on the 20th 
June 1844 the following resolutions were passed. 

" 1st, that considering the indefatigable, highly 
meritorious and purely disinterested services of the 

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late David Hare Esqr. with reference to the cause 
of native education, it is desirable to connect his name 
with objects in furtherance of that cause, as one of 
the best means of perpetuating his memory. 

2nd, That for this purpose a subscription be open- 
ed to be called the Hare Prize Fund and that when 
it exceeds four thousand rupees, the amount be col- 
lected, by an officer to be appointed by the subs- 
cribers at their general meeting ; and that the same 
be invested in government securities the interest of 
which alone will be drawn upon for premia to be 
awarded to Bei^alee treatises on subjects to be pre- 
viously chosen and advertized by the Committee. 

3rd. That in the event of the collections not 
reaching four thousaud rupees, the object for which 
contributions are solicited be considered as abandoned 
as it would not be desirable to attempt prosecuting 
it without the certain prospett of its permanency, 

4th. That as soon as the requisite amount is subs- 
cribed for, a meeting of the subscribers be called for 
the purpose of appointing office-bearers and enacting 
necessary rules for the management of the Fund, 
and the accomplishment of the object for which it is 
to be raised," 

The sum subscribed for by the nati\e commimity 
amount to Cos. Rupees 1800 which not being ever, 
half the proposed amount, the Committee thought 
it proper lo circulate the subscription book among 
the European community of whom a few distin- 
guished friends of native Education have liberally 


( 96 ) 

contributed Rs. 700. Although fhe aggregate of both 
subscriptions falls short of the sum originally deter- 
mined upon, yet the Committee being on reconsidera- 
tion Opposed to the abandonment of the plan beg to 
submit the following recommendations, 

1st. That the subscriptions be realized and in- 
vested in government securities, the interest of which 
is to be applied to the bestowal of only one prize, 

2nd, That the Fund be kept open for further 
contributions and when increased to Rs. 4000 and 
uptvards the number of prizes be increased, 

3rd. That the Bank of Bengal be the Tieasurers. 

4th. That the following office bearers be appoin- 
ted viz: — three trustees one of whom shall be the 
Collector and three Judges for the purpose of decid- 
ing On the merits of the essays. 

The following resolutions were unanimously car- 
ried. Proposed by Baboo Peary Chand Mittra and 
seconded by Baboo Ram Chunder Mittra, that the 
report just read be adopted. 

Proposed by Baboo Shama Churn Sen and secon- 
ded by Baboo Horomohun Chatterjea that the follow- 
ing gentleman be appointed Trustees: — Baboo Ram- 
gopal Ghose, Horee Mohon Sen, and Debendro Nath 
Tagore, and that Baboo Debendro Nath Tagore be 
requested to be the collector. Proposed by Baboo 
Ramgopa! Ghose and seconded by Baboo Ram- 
chunder Mittra, that the Committee be authorized to 
select subjects for which premia will be held out and 
appoint three Judges for deciding on the merits 


( 97 ) 

of the treatises to be tendered by cotnpcteton for 
the premia. 

The third anniversary was held at the Fouzdari 
Balakhana Hall on the 1st June 1S45. 

Baboo Ramgopal Ghose in the Chair. 

The chairman said that he held in his hand s 
circular calling the Hare anniversary meeting whidi 
owed its origin to a resolution passed on the 1st June 
1843. That an annual meeting of the friends of 
the late David Hare be held on the 1st June, being 
the anniversary of his death, for th^ purpose of 
conunemorating the disinterestedness and philan- 
throphy which were conspicuous in his life for 
more than a quarter of a century and for giving 
expression to those feelings of gratitude and res- 
pect with which his indefatigable and unparalleled 
exertions in the cause of Hindu Education ought ever 
to be remembered by the Natives of India. It 
was a solemn occasion. They were met to com- 
memorate the philanthrophy of one whose name 
was dearly beloved, was enshrined in their hearts, 
and was associated there with gratitude and esteem- 
For the last two years, a discourse on subjeets connec- 
ted with the moral, intellectual or social advancement 
of India, had been read and his friend on the right 
would deliver a similar discourse that evening. 

Baboo Ukhoy Coomar Dutto then rose to deliver 

a discourse which was in Bengalee language. The 

subject of it was the chaises effected by the agency 

of educatien in the Hindu mind. He began by 


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taking a retrospective view of the condition of his 
country. He contrasted the present with the past, 
^ime was, he eaid, when Hindus were so utterly 
incapable of appreciating the utility of public 
works that they would not have subscribed a pice 
to promote them — when they understood nothing 
'except what related to the gratification of their 
animal wants. A better day had however dawned 
upon his fatherland. Though ihe great mass of 
his countrymen were atill destitute of all public 
spirit and pre-eminently distinguished by apathy and 
lukewarmness yet there was a large and increas- 
ing number of educated and intelligent Natives who 
TWere not open to these charges. They thought and 
acted far differently from their benighted breUiren 
many of them were laudably exerting themselves 
to improve and elevate their country, they had 
established societies for ameliorating its moral and 
political condition ; they had set on foot educational 
institutions for disseminating the blessings of that 
education which they had themselves received, and 
which they knew, was the grant remedial agent for all 
ttie evils of their country. Baboo Ukhoy Coomar 
Dutto then dwelt upon the happy efforts likely 
:ixruefrom the present altered state of things brought 
about by the labours of that zealous and indefatigable 
friend of native education — the late David Hare. He 
was the author of that great moral revolution 
through which this country was revolving. The 
Baboo adverted to the exertions of Mr. Hare in 

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promotiiig almost every object that was calculated to 
ameliorate the condition of India, such as the free- 
dom of the press, and the prevention of the cooly- 
trade ; and he concluded by euloziging that active 
benevolence which was the most conspicuous trait of 
Mr. Hare's character. The Baboo sat down iunldfit 
loud and enthusiastic cheers. Baboo Kissory Chiind 
Mittra then rose and said: — 

My friend has just observed that Mr. Hare was 
one of those who think the world to be their country 
and mankind their countrymen. His indefatigable 
exertions to promote our moral and intellectual 
elevation cannot be sufficiently appreciated. To 
work out the great work oi our regeneration was 
liis- object and to the furtherance of that object 
he unhesitatingly devoted all his energies. All his 
hopes and aspirations were centred in the prospect 
of its realization. 1 am sure, I should not be 
charged with exaggeration, if I declared that among 
the philanthropists, whom England — whom Europe, 
whom the world have given birth, to a high place 
must unquestionably be assigned to David Hare. 
-With an energy which triumphed over those for- 
midable obstacles which had opposed themselves 
to the progress of intellectual enlightenment in our 
country — with a perseverence which was unwearying — 
with a benevolence which was not sectarian but 
catholic, he devoted himself to the good of a foreign 
race and pursued in privacy and seclusion, the paths 
of beneficence which lead to no fame among men, but 

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which conduce to that glory compared to whkh 
royalty itself is but insignificance and yields that 
happiness compared to which that of the senses 
dwindles into nothii^ness. But it would be idle to 
dwell upon the philanthrophy of Mr- Hare before an 
assembly composed of those who have been largely 
and incalculably indebted to him — of those who m^ 
be said io owe their intellectual existence to him — of 
those who have been accustomed from the earliest days 
of their youth to look upon him as their best and 
most sincere friend. The discourse we have just 
heard is veiy clever and interesting and it is not the 
less so because of its being a Bengali one. I know 
Mr. Chairman that there is a large number of our 
educated friends who can relish nothing that is Bengali, 
their taste seems to be diametrically opposed to all 
that is written in their own tongue. The most elevated 
thoughts and the most sublime sentiments when 
embodied in it become Hat, stale, and unprofitable. 
But this prejudice is I am disposed to think fast 
^rearing out and the necessity and importance of 
cultivating the Bengali language, the language of our 
country — the language of our infancy — the langu^e 
in which our earliest idea and associations are in- 
twincd will ere long be recognized by all. 

The fourth anniversary was held at the Fouzdane 
Balakhana Hall on the 1st June 1846. 

Baboo Ramgopal Ghose in the chair. 

The Reverend K. M. Banerjea read a discourse 
in Bengali. 

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Read a Jetter dated 20th April 1846, from Baboo 
Kissory Chand Mittra resigning the office of Secretary 
in consequence of his departure for Rajshaye. 

Moved by Baboo Ramgopal Ghose seconded by 
Reverend K, M. Banerjea and unanimously carried 
that a vote of thanks be given to Baboo Kissory 
Chand Mittra fpr his ener|;etic and zealous services. 

Proposed by the Reverend K. M. Banerjea seconded 
by Baboo Ramchunder Mittra and carried unanimously 
that Baboo Peary Chand Mittra be appointed Secretary 
to the Committee for the perpetuation of Mr. Hare's 
memory. M. J. Kerr, Principal of the Hindu College 
spoke at some length on the benevolence and philan- 
throphy of Mr. David Hare from the many opport- 
unities he had of judging of his character. Baboo 
Peary Chand Mittra reported that he had received 
advices as to the successful execution of Mr, Hare's 
statue by Mr. Baily. It had been seen by Dr. Goodeve 
and Mr. Joseph, both of whom had pronounced 
it to possess a striking and excellent likeness. He 
added that it would soon be shipped. With regard to 
the Biographical Sketch of Mr. Hare, he regretted to 
aay th^it the Committee had not been able lo take any 
steps in consequence of their not having been furni- 
shed with the materials of the early part of his life. 
As to the Hare-Prize fund, he begged to state that the 
balance in the hand of the Collector was Rupees 1631 
and 6 annas. He earnestly hoped that the amount 
required to make up the requisite sum would be ■ 
made up. 

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, . ."n^e fifth anniversary was held at the Medical 
College Theatre on the 1st June 1847, 

The Revd. K. M. Banerjea in the Chair. 
Pundit Madun Mohun Turkalanker delivered a 
discourse in Bengali on the extraordinary virtues and 
philanthropic acts of David Hare, "■ 

The sixth anniversary was held at the Hindu 
College on the 1st June 1848. 

Baboo DEBENnERNATH Tagore in the Chair. 
Baboo Rajnarain Bose delivered a discourse in the 

The seventh anniversary was held at the Hindu 
College on the 1st June 1849. 

Baboo Ramgopal Ghose in the Chair, 
The meeting was largely attended. Among the 
visitors were the Hon'ble J. E. D. Bethune, Dr. F. J. 
Mount, and Mr. Balfour. 

The Reverend K. M. Banerjea read a discourse 
expatiating on the philanthrophy of David Hare, the 
father of native education and demonstrating that it is 
incumbent on every native who had benefitted by Mr. 
Hare to promote female education- 

The Hon'ble J. E. D. Bethune expressed a very 
high opinion of the discourse and proposed that it 
should be printed. 

The eighth anniversary was held at the Sanscrit 
College on the 1st June 1850. 

The Revd. K. M. Banerjea in the Chair. 

■ .^ The Revd, K. M, Banerjea read a discourse in 

Bengali on the best means of invigorating the.Bc^^li 

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language which concluded with a very full notice of 
David Hare. 

The ninth anniversary was held at the Mcdicat 
College on the 1st June 18S1. 

The Revd. Professor K, M. Banerjea in the chair. 
Baboo Shamchuni Mokerjea lead a paper in Bengali. 

The tenth anniversary was held at the Medical 
College on the 1st June 1852, 

Rajah Pratap Chunder Sing in the Chair. 

Baboo Nobinkessen Banerjea read a paper in 

The eleventh anniversary was held at the Medical 
College on the 1st June 1853. 
The Revd, Professor K. M. Banerjea in the Chair. 

Baboo Sriputi Mokerjea read a paper in Bengali. 

The twelfth anniversary was held at the Medical 
College on the 1st June 1854. 

Baboo Shib Chunder Deb in the Chair. 

Dr. Chuckerbutty read a discourse having reference 
to the benefits of the travelling of the natives of India. 

The thirteenth anniversary was held at Baboo 
Sreekissen Singhi's House, Jorasanko on the.tst 
June 1855. 

Rajah Kaleekissen Deb Bahadoor in the Chair. 

Baboo Umbica Chum Ghoshal, Kristodas Paul, and 
Kaliprosono Sing read discourses. Baboo Kristodas. 
Pal concluded his discourse by making the following- 
remarks regarding David Hare : — ' ' 

But stop my humble soul I Gentlemen, we have 
been so long talking of the "educated Nativti dr> 

D,g,l.2cd|v,G00gIc " 

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B«^al," but who was it that made him worthy of the 
name, and raised him to this enviable distinction — to 
be more clear, who was it that first obtained him the 
education he is justly so proud of ? Question your 
ownselves, gentlemen, question them that saw your 
friend labor in your cause, question the elder portioQ 
of your countrymen, question Time — the never-dyii^ 
and never-speaking and allknowing Historian — and all 
will answer you he was "David Hare !" — that glorious 
being to celeberate whose memory we have met this 
evening ! With him, — 

Life was real, life was earnest ! 
"devoted to one generous end," — 
To bless the Hindu mind with British lore. 
And truth's and nature's faded lights restore, — D.L.R. 
David Hare was the true friend of India ; he pledged 
his powers to the most sacred task that ever man took 
to the performance of. He sought the education— 
the true enlightenment of the people of Bengal. 
Neither day nor night was to him a respite while a 
single stone was left unturned which could push the 
progress of his cause. His heart and soul were all 
embarked in the undertaking the success of which is 
mirrored in the elevated soul of Young Bengal. 
The country may be benefitted, no doubt, by the 
roarch of Iron lines, the diffusion of electric wires, 
the irrigation of canals, the construction of metalled 
lOada, the eisy despatch of letters, and the conversion 
of rank jungles into luxuriant fields and smiling 
abodes of men, and their several authors are entitled 

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to our highest esteem and gratitude, but the work 
n^iich has for its object, the dispelling the daitness 
of ignorance and barbarism, the sapping the foundation 
of the old fobric of superstition, and antiquated 
prejudices, and the diffusing a taste for the truly 
. sublime and beautiful, the really good and great, is 
beneficial beyOnd expression, and he who carries it Out, 
is deserving of our admiration and love beyond 
compare. A Stephenson or an O'Shaughoessy, or a 
Thomason, or a Napier, has well grounded pretensions 
to our praise and gratitude, but who can do adequate 
justice to the eminent services David Hare rendered 
to our common country ? If there be in this world 
what men cell guardian angels, who guide our destinies 
and watch over our interests, David was undoubtedly 
such a one. He was a friend to the friendless, a 
guardian to those that were without a guardian, and a 
hetpman to them that were without a help. The 
stories that are related of him are, if not romantic, 
truly Roman-like. It is a pity that we have not a 
complete life of such a man whose every action 
pointed a moral, the book of whose existence was a 
treatise On moral philosophy, and an eloquent volume 
on imrestricted philanthrophy, whose virtues were 
quite Socratic, and whose conduct quite saintly. 
Indeed he was the man — if man may be called the 
image of his Maker. He was an honor to his blood, 
aglory to his country, and an ornament to his race. 
^ I What a noble soul was his, how large his heart ! 
He left the land of his birth — the home of his youth 

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and love — to enuincipate like Lord Byron, the 
wretched sons of India, from intellectul thraldom, and 
to d:e at last in the ardour of his good cause in a 
foreign region which he loved with an undivided heart. 
He appropriated all his resources to the services of 
those that have met this evening to honor his memory. 
■ It is truly edifying to observe that no love of fame or 
worldly advantage actuated him to the work of 
goodness that has quite immortalized him— a pure 
disinterestedness, a heartfelt desire for our good, a 
genuine anxiety for our welfare led him to those noble 
acts of charity and self-sacrifice, with which the 
brilliant achivements of the conqueror, or the glorious 
discoveries and inventions of the philosopher, can 
hardly bear comparison. He did not blazon forth 
with ostentation the deeds of his benevolence,-^ or 
preach about the spirit of his phiranthropy. He did 
good by stealth. In silence and secrecy did he woric 
out his intentions. A good knowledge of the routine 
of his daily life is worth having. The following, 
though brief, is a pretty fair outline : With the sun 
he used to rise, and his morning duties done, set 
himself to the progress of the sacred cause he 
mortgaged himself to- A number of indigent fathers 
with their innocent little boys waits on him, — he asks 
of their suit, and replied, gladly takes the youths 
under his care, and enrols them into the soldiery of 
which he was the captain and the commander. W9ien 
it is time for him to go to his school— the stage 
whereon he played, — the field whereOn he fought— the" 

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Sphere of his action--the world. of his career — he sets 
out,, and arrived, looks as to who are absent and 
why ? He asks of the neighbour students the cause, 
and then sets out to enquire himself of their absence. 
Where answered that the smatlness of his means hardly 
allows the boy to continue his studies longer, he plays 
the banker, and assists him with money,— but that 
he manages so silenty and secretly that his fellow- 
students know no more of it than I or you know 
what is this moment going on in Austria or Russia. 
When answered that the boy is sick, he acts the 
doctor, and attends him daily until he thoroughly 
recovers — a sort of parental care is then read in his 
looks. Although with no splendid intellectual gifta 
or attainments, still so instinct was he with the art 
of training, that he gave his students an intellectual 
character quite astonishing. The pride — the honest 
pride and the only pride in which he indulged himself, 
was that A« pupils fonned the flowers of the Hindu 
College. His manners were so winning, and his 
conduct gracious that boys stuck to him as their only 
friends. They took a delight to be in the presence 
of Hare — to belong to Hare's school. So many are 
the acts of his goodness tradition hands down to us 
that it is hard to allude to them even in this small 
compass. One tells me that his library was his 
students' library — his papers and pens their. Another 
says that he was so liberal and kind-hearted that, 
like poor Goldsmith, he would pawn his wearing 
clothes if that could benefit ?ny. Again another states 

( 108 ) 

that he would uodergo the greatest trouble and suffer 
the worst sacrifice if he could, by so doing, do good 
to his suitor. Thus to whomsoever we ask of the 
benevolence of David Hare, a new tale is told— so 
thick is the volume of his acts of charity. Indeed, 
he was the angel of goodness men invokC;— he was 
virtue personified— philanthropy was his soul. But 
he was not blinded by religious bigotry. Color or 
creed was to him no pretext for the withdrawal of 
his aid. His mission was not for one class but for 
all who would come to him. The old and orthodox 
Hindus used to cheerfully send (heir boys to him for 
instruction — not only was his charity, but his non- 
sectarism was a great inducement to them. At his 
death there was not a Hindu in India who knew him 
and did not shed tears for him. His demise was a 
common calamity to the country. Men, women, and 
children all wept for him. So beloved and valued 
was he ! Ask you, gentlemen, where do the remains 
of such a philanthropist lie interred .' Oh ? he is 
consigned to the hearts of the Hindus— he the best of 
friends that they ever had. But there has been also 
another burial for him. Go to College Square, and 
there you will find his sacred monument raised by his 
beloved and grateful Hindu friend and students— 
though his true and worthy monument is wherever 
an educated Native breathes. 

There David rests in death, while living fame 
From Thames to Ganges wafts his honor'd name ! 
Samuel Rogers, the Bard of Memory says— 

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— When by a good man's grave I sit alone, 
Metliiaks an angel sits upon the stone. 
Like those of old on that thrice-hallow'd 

Who sat and walked in raiment heavenly bright. 
And, with a voice inspirii^ not fear 
Says, pointing upward, "know, he is not here, 
He is risen" 

Does not a similar feeling steal into our breaatx, 
and do we not experience a similar tone to mind 
when we muse over the memory of him to whom we 
owe this, our present elevated position ? Indeed, if 
there be any to whom we are bound in a bondage of 
gratitude which no man can liquidate, it is David 
Hare. I. cannot close without citing the following 
lines of the Poet : 

O David Hare ! the man ! the brother 1 
And art thou gone, and gone for ever ? 
And hast thou crest that unknown river 

Life's dreary bound ? 
Like ihee where shall we find another 

The world around ? 
Go to your sculptur'd tomb, ye Great ! 
In a'the tinsel trash o' state ! 
But by thy honest turf we'll wait 

Thou man of worth, 

And weep thee a'e best fellow's fate 

E'er lay in earth.* 

Such was David Hare ! To him we owe 

A debt immense of endless gratitude. 


( 110 ) . 

And to pay that debt we must do what our educa- 
tion teaches us to do, and what he, if alive, would 
approve of, viz, act as becomes a Man and a Patriot, 
and avoid those paths which lead to evil and which he 
abhorred. Gentlemen, to conclude in the espre^ive 
language of Lord Halifax, may we so raise Our char- 
acter, that we may help to make the next age a better 
thing, and leave posterity in our debt for the advantage 
it. shall receive from our example. God willii^ we 
shall not he unequal to the task. Come then ! Be 
MEN ! Try what you tell, do what you would have 
done — glory and your country's gratitude await ye! 

•Bums' Elegy on Captain Mathew Henderson. To 
suit the lines to tne occasion I have taken the liberty 
of substituting "David Hare" for "Henderson"— «ii 
act not very reprehensible in itself. 

The fourteenth anniversary was held at the house 
of Baboo KaliprosOno Singh on the 1st June 18S6. 

Raja Kalikrishna Bahadoor, in the Chair. 

The chairman explained the object of the meeting 
and dwelt at sOme length on the philanthropic labors 
and noble self-denial of the late David Hare. 

Baboo Sreeputty Mookerjea read an English dis- 
course on Education with special reference to the 
Training School of JanOye. 

Baboo Kaliprosono Singh read a Bengali essay 
on the study of the Vernacular language. A warm 
and lengthy discussion then ensued between Mr. 
Mc. Luckie and Professor Burgess of the Parental 

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Academy One side and Baboos Kristo Das Pal and 
Judoo Nath Ghose on the other. The former two 
gentlemen maintained that in order to impart to the 
people of India, a sound moral education and elevate 
them to a higher state of practical ethics, the Govern- 
ment as a Christian Government cOuld not with any 
consiatency exclude the Bible from its schools and 
colleges, whilst the latter two strenuously opposed 
them saying that for good practical moraU there was 
no necessity for goi^g to the Christian scriptures, that 
morals as such were to be abundantly found in any 
religious worit or professed book on ethics and that 
morals and religion were widely apart from each other. 
The Reverend C. H. A. Dall supported the Native 
speakers. ' He also said that he had recently received 
from the United States a little book of moral lessons 
Slaving no reference to Christianity, which was 
submitted through a sub-Inspector to Mr. Gordon 
Young for adoption in government schools and 
collies, and which with a few exceptions, he added, 
has been approved of, and was now in the course of 

r The chairman then informed the meeting that no 
report has as yet been received from the Adjudicators 
of the Prize Essay given last year- He also expressed 
his approbation of a suggestion made by one of the 
members present that a Life of the late lamented 
David Hare should be written in Bengali which he 
hoped would be produced on a similar necaaioit like 
this next year. 

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( 112 ) 

The fifteenth anniversary was held at the houie 
of Baboo Sreelcissen Singh on the 1st. June 1857. 

Baboo Jadaub Krishna Singh, in the chair. 

Baboo Nilmoney Deb read a paper on the History 
of Education in Bengal. 

The sixteenth anniversary was held at the houae 
of Baboo Kali Prosono Singh on the Isi. June 1858. 

Raja Kali Krishna Bahadoor, 
IN THE chair. 

Baboo Kaliprosono Singh read a paper on Ben- 
gali Drama. 

The seventeenth anniversary was held at the house 
of Kaliprosono Singh on the 1st June 1859. 

Raja Kali Krishna bahadoor, in the chair. 

The chairman in stating the object of convening 
the meeting, expatiated on the distinguished services 
of the late David Hare to the cause of native 

Baboo Biprodas Banerjea and Kunglall Banerjea 
read discourses in Bengali. 

The eighteenth anniversary was held at the house 
of Baboo Kaliprosono Singh on the 1st June 1860. 

Baboo Balaychand Sing, in the chair. 

Baboo KaleepFosono Singh read a discourse in 

The Nineteenth anniversary was held at the British 
Indian Association Rooms on the 2nd June 1861. 

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( 113 ) 

Baboo Ramgopaul Ghose in the chair. Baboo 
KissOry Chand Mittra delivered a discourse an the 
"ilindu College and its founder," This discourse 
will be found in appendix B. 

The Twentieth anniversary was held at the Roonis 
of the British Indian Association on the 1st June 

Rajah Pertaup Chunder Singh Bahadoob, 
IN THE Chair. 

Baboo Kalipro^no Sir^h read a discourse in 
Bengali on the State of Agriculture in Bengal and 
the Agricultural Exhibition. 

The twenty- first anniversary was held at the 
Rooms of the British Indian Association on the 1st 
June 1863. 

Baboo Degumber Mittra, in the Chair. 

Baboo KissOry Chand Mittra delii'ered a discourse 
On the "Medical College and its first Secty," 

The twenty-second anniversary was held at the 
British Indian Association Rooms on the 1st June 

Baboo Kissorychand Mittra, in the Chair. 

Baboo Nobogopaul Mittra read a discourse. 

The twenty-third anniversary was held at the 
British Indian Association Rooms on the 1st June 

Baboo Kfistodas Paul, in the Chair. 

Baboo Dwijendemath Tagore read a discourse. 

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- The Twenty-fourth anniverBary wu held at the 
British Indiftn Aaeociation Rooms on the Ut Jun« 

Baboo Kissohychand Mittra, in the chaib. 

Baboo Keasub Chundra Sen delivered a very 
interesting discourse on the progress of education 
in the metropolis and concluded by suggesting that 
some more satisfactory arrai^ements ought to be 
made in the Government schools for imparting moral 
education to the pupils. 

Baboos Kessub Chunder Sen, Kristo Das Pal, 
Kissory Chand Mittra and Kashishur Mittra were 
appointed a Committee for the purpose of taking into ' 
consideration the desirableness of making a repre- 
sentation to the Director of Public Instruction for 
making such arrangements as may insure to the 
pupils in Government schools more healthy and 
sustained moral education and moral training. 

The meeting then unanimously resolved to tender 
its thanks to the Director of Public instruction for 
changing the name of the Colootollah Branch School 
into Hare School. 

The Twenty-fifth anniversary was held at the 
British Indian Association Rooms on the 1st June 

Baboo Decumber Mittra, in the Chair. 

Dr. Mohendra Lall Sircar gave a discourse on 
the effects of English education on the Hindu mind. 


( 1" ) 

The Twenty-acventh anniversary was held at *• 
Town Hall on the Ist June 1869. 

The Rbved. K. M. Banerjea, in the Chair. 
Baboo Kissory Chand Mittra read "The lif« of 
Dwarkanath Tagore." . 

The Twenty-ninth anniversary was held at tlw 
Town Hall, on the 1st June 1870. 

The Hon'ble J. B. Phear, in the Chaib. 
The Reverend K. M. Banerjea delivered a dia- 
course onthe Early State of Education in Bengal. 

The thirtieth anniversary was held at the To^ 
Hatl on the 1st June 1872. 

The Keyed. K. M. Banerjea, in the Chair. 
Baboo Issur Chunder Mittra delivered a discourse. 
"Need we give our young men a more practical 
education than they receive." 

The Thirty-second anniversary was held at the 
Town Hall, on the 1st June 1874. 

Rajah Chundebnath Bahadoor, in the Chair. 
Baboo Nobogopal Mitter delivered a discourse on 
the fitness Of the educated Bengali to be a soldier. 

The thirty-fourth anniversary was held at tha 
Senate House, on the 1st June 1876. r 

Thf Hon'ble Rajah Narendbo Krishna 
Bahadoor in the Chair. 

The Hon'ble Chairman after making a few pre- 
fatory remarks on the phllanthrophy and the moat 

( 116 ) 

Mhiabte services the late David Hare had rendered 
to the cause of native education, introduced Dr. 
Mohendro Lall Sircar, who delivered a discourse. 


• Uaboo Ramgopaul Ghose, Reverend K, M. 
Canerjea, Baboo Debendronath TagOre adjudicators. 

1. Prize of Rs. 100. 

For the best essay in Bengali on -the evils of 
^rly Marriage, in the form of a tale. 

Awarded to Baboo Sectanath GhOse, Hindu Cpl- 
icge, Senior Department. 

2. Prize of Rs. 75. 

For the best essay in Bengali, on Hindu Female 

Awarded to Tarasankar Sunhana of the Sanscrit 

3. Prize of Rs, 100. (1850) 

For the best essay in Bengali on the present state 
of Bengali literature and the best means of enriching it. 
Avrarded to Pundit Hureenath Surma. 
, . 4. In 1851 the question of offering a prize, for 
a life of David Hare was mooted. 
^ Baboo Ramgopaul Ghose minuted as follows "I 
.doubt if there are materials to enable a writer to 
produce an interesUng biography. Instead of a "life" 
we would probably get a rhapsodical essay on David 
Hare's character." The Reverend K. M. Banerjea 
ooncurced in this minute. 

Prize of Rs. 120. (1851). 

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{ 117 ) 

For 'the beat essay in Bengali on the E^emptary 
biography of Females in ancient and modem times. 
Not a single paper was received. 

5. Prize of Rs. 200, (1853). 

.For the best essay in Bengali — "what constitutes 
the greatness of a nation." 

Awarded to pundit Haronath Surma. 

6. Prize of Rs. 200. 

For the best essay in Bei^li on the following 
subject :~ 

"The social improvements are most required in 
the present state of society in Bengal and by what 
means can they be most effectually ■ promoted" ? Only 
one essay was received and as it did not come up to 
the mark, a prize of 100 Rs. was given. 

7. Prize of Rs. 350. 

For the best essay in Bengali, on the Importance 
of physical education. 

3 Essays were received and a prize of 100 Rs. 
was given to Baboo Runglall Banerjea. 

8. Prize of Rs. 250. 

For the best essay in Bengali to consist of 
two parts. 1st Advantages of Commerce, 2nd An 
account of the dcvelopement of the external com- 
merce of Bengal. 

Only one essay was received and the prize was 
5 9. Prize of Rs. 400. 

For the best essay in Bengali, on RaiUvays-and 
' EtectiiC' Telegraphs in India ; their iatrOducCion, 

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( 118 ) 

pFOgrees and present state and their importance and 
influence considered politically, commercially and 
gcDerally as affecting the progress of the people. 

Four Essays were received but none came up to 
the marie. 

Baboo Pearychund Mittra submitted the following 
minute to the Committefc of Adjudicators. "One of 
the objects of inviting annually essays in Bengali 
has been in a great measure gained as a number of 
worits On a great many subjects have been published 
and it may now be worthy of consideration whether 
it would not be better to apply the whole of our fund 
to the bestowal of prizes for works on certain subjects 
of practical importance, calling them "Hare Prize 
fund Books." I merely submit this as suggestion which if 
approved by the committee it will be necessary to have 
confirmed by a general meeting of the subscribers to the 
fund to be called especially for the purpose." 

A special meeting of the subscribers to the Hare 
Prize fund was held at the British Indian Association 
Rooms on the 20th October 1864 :— 

Baboo Debendhonath Tagorb, in the Chair. 

The chairman read the advertisement convening 
rtie meeting. 

The following resolutions were unanimously 

Ist. That the bestowal of prizes for the best 
•Mays in Bengali not having worked satisfactorily, the. 
amount belonging to the Hare Prize fund be now 
applied to the prepartion of standard woritsio. the 

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( 119 ) 

Bengali Langu^e calculated to elevate the female 

2nd. That the present adjudicatore Baboo Debeo- 
dronath Tagore, Baboo Ramgopal Ghosc and the Revd 
K. M. Banerjea with power to add to>their number 
by the Committee for carrying out the above object. 

3rd. That the present Secretary Baboo Peary- 
Chand Mittra be the Secretary to the Committee. 

4th. That on the title pages of every wort to 
be approved by the Committee and published, the 
words the "Hare Prize Fund Essay" are to be in- 
serted with the view to perpetuate the memory of 
David Hare. 

Sth, That every work to be approved by the 
Committee shall be the property of the writer. 

6th. That the charge of advertizing the meeting 
be paid out of the Hare Prize fund. 

In 1867 Baboo Ramgopaul Ghose retired from 
business — Baboo Shibchunder Deb was elected a 
member of the Committee of adjudicators and the 
Secretary was appointed Treasurer, in the room of 
Baboo Ramgopaul Ghose. 

The works published under ihe auspices of the 
Committee are — 

t. Adhatic Biggan or Introduction to Spiritual- 
ism by BaboO Shibchunder Deb. 

II. Mohilabalee or Exemplary Female Biogra- 
■ phy by Baboo Gopeekissen Mitter. 

in. Selections from Bamabodhinee Patrica on vari- 
ous subjects duly classified by Baboo Shibchunder Peb, 

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IV. 'ITic Hindu Female Compositioita, 

V. A Treatise containing directions fof leamiog 
different Manual and Fine Arts by Baboo Prannath 
Dutt Chowdry. (To be published shortly.) 

It 18 to be regretted that neither the Council of 
Education nor the Managing Committee of the Hindu 
College recorded a suitable resolntion after the death 
of David Hare. The latter body in their proceedings 
dated I3th June 1842 in proposing the appointment 
of visitor for Hare's School allude to "the invaluable 
services of Mr. Hare to the School." 

Baboo Russomoy, Secretary to the Section of the 
Council of Education, in his letter No 1690 dated 
13th June 1842 states "it appears that the pupils of 
this school ( School Society's English School at 
Patuldanga) have hitherto been admitted entirely by 
Mr. Hare ; that they have paid nothing for schooling, 
books or stationery, that the discipline was maintained 
by Mr. Hare personally ; and that he paid from his 
own funds any incidental charges in excess of the 
Government allowance of five hundred rupees." In 
the letter from the General Department daied 29th 
June 1842 sanctioning the proposed arrangement for 
the maintenance of the school in question it is stated 
that. — "His Honor in Council cannot omit this 
occasion of recording his regret at the loss the cause 
of education has suffered by the absence of the 
individual whose care and tact mainly produced ' 
the flourishing state of the Institution under 

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Between 1854 and 185S there was a distribution 
of prizes to the Hindu College and other Institutions 
in the Town Hall, at which the Honourhle F. J. 
Halliday, the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal, presided. 
In adverting to the Education Dispatch and the 
dissolution of the Council of Education he paid a very 
feeling tribute to the memory of David Hare, which 
he felt called upon to do as the name of the Hindu 
College, which was so largely indebted to him, would 
under the new arrangement cease. 



Extraordinary power of walking.— 

Mr. Hare must have been a man of remarkably 
healthy organization and great physical powers of 
endurance. An instance of this has been related 
to us. — Seated one evening at the tabic of his old 
friend Mr. Earnest Grey with whom he resided, 
where a young gentleman visitor was taking tea, 
the conversation turned upon the habit of walking, 
.when some remark or good humoured provocation, 
.'induced Mr. Hare to challenge the visitor to a trial 
of his walking power. The challenge was at once 
accepted, and the pair, starting, at once, walked 
to Barrackpore, (14 miles) and thence, returned, — 

t, Google 

( 122 ) 

still on faot !— On reaching Hare Street, (so called 
we believe after Mr. Haie himself) in which Mr. 
Grey's home was situated, whilst his young antagonist 
was fairly exhausted and done up. Mr. Hare himself, 
to shew how little he was affected, ran the length of 
the Street to Mr. Grey's door ! 

Simple diet. — 
His dietary habits, also appeared to be as simple 
as they were temperate. He would not use butter — 
saying it was fit only to grease cart wheels with. This 
however had most probably reference only to the 
miserable commodity which was in those days obtain- 
able in Calcutta, and might be seen manufactured with 
primitive rusticity of manner at the Butterman's door, 
midst the smothering dust, of a public road. 

Baboo Rajnarain Bose. 
Vexation for not visiting sick boys. — 
Once, when I wert to see Jiim after my recovery 
frOm an attack of fever, he was highly displeased with 
me for not having sent him notice of my illness so 
that he should have attended with medicines in his 

He rubbed boys with his own hand.— 
Mr. Hare used often to stand at the gate of bia 
School with a towel in his hand, at the time when 
it broke up in the afternoon, to rub the limbs of the 
boys with it to sec whether they have got any dirton 
tbeit person. He thus tried to introduce hMbita of 

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' eleanlioese among boys belonging to a section noto- 
riODs for their dirtiness. 

Baboo Govinchonder Dutt. 
Fondness of Children. — 

When quite a child I used to visit David Hare 
in his house in company of my grandfather Nelloo 
Dutt and get toys, and books from him. I had 
the run of the whole house on such occasions when 
the two old gentlemen sat quietly talking — the best 
part of a day. I still have a clock marked with 
the name of Hare. 

Hare discouraged fiogging.— 
When I was a child of about six or seven years, 
I was in the class of a native teacher of the old 
Hindoo College, (now the Hindoo school) who 
laboured under the impression that the genius of boys 
can be called forth only by the process by which (ire 
is called forth from fiint. The notion is absurd and 
has long bgen exploded. But in those days it was 
venerated not only here but every where. Any one 
who has read the Autobiography of Leigh Hunt, must 
remember what a strong hold the idea had in the 
educational institutions of England in former days. 
Boyer of Christ's Hospital was indeed a kindred spirit 
to my respected teacher. As the time of the annual 
examinations drew near, my worthy teacher regulated 
his punishments on an ascending scale. Thus, when 
. there were twenty eight days still before the examina- 

D:,-:c.Jt, Google. 

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tioo3, we had two cuts for each mistake, when there 
were twenty six wc had three, when there were 
twenty four, we had four, so that about the end, 
we had sometimes ten or twelve cuts for each mistake, 
I remember 1 made a mistake on the day of eight 
cuts,'but to the honor of the teacher, be it recorded, 
I had only one. The youngest in the class, I cried so 
much at the first stroke, that he said he would keep 
the rest as an arrear. It would remain against ine as 
a debt which he would exact to the full, at some 
other time. He has not called upon me to pay it, up 
to this day 1 But this is nothing to my present 
purpose. The strokes or cuts were generally given 
with the stick of a palm leaf fan with which the 
teacher used to fan himself in the hot summer days. 
Well, one day he had been unusually severe with one 
of the lads, and had given him no end of cuts. Some- 
how or other the fact came to the notice of'Mr. 
Hare who was in the habit of visiting the college 
and each particular class in it, every day. Next 
afternoon when Mr. Hare came into the class, there 
was a peculiar smile on his face. He sat down in the 
teacher's chair, and had a long confabulation with him. 
I do not know on what subject he talked. The 
students were all too far away. But this I know, 
that Mr. Hare was laughing, and our instructor looking 
grave. At the end, Mr. Hare took out his pocket 
knife a "gudc" weapon such as Sir Walter Scott 
ordinarily carried about him, and made Hogg" the 
Ettrick shepherd as a boy, nickname him 'the mtn 


( 12S ) 

with the, gude knife, — and tl^en cut off the punka 
handle to the very root. Then he rose, looked round 
the class significantly, laughed aloud, and with a bow 
gave the' palm leaf without any handle to the teacher, 
to fan himself therewith for the future. 

Mr. Hare's courage. — 

Regarding the example of courage and manliness 
which Mr. Hare always used to exhibit before the 
boys, I remember one notable instance. 

A drunken sailor, a big, brawny athlete of a fellow 
passing by the college, took it into his head to quarrel 
with the coachman of one of the students wliose 
'Carriage was standing at the gate- The coachman and 
syces fled, and the sailor picked up a thick stick from 
the college compound, and began to demolish the 
carriage. I was looking on with two or three others, 
as young and puny, quite safely ensconsed in a window 
of the upper floor of the Sanscrit College. The 
durwans of the College came out and interposed, but 
they beat a hasty retreat into their dens, when the 
sailor turned upon them with his formidable extempo- 
rised bludgeon. The carriage was utterly ruined, and 
the victorious sailor went away flourishing his shillalah. 
At this moment, when he had vanished, Mr. Hare's 
palankeen came in sight. The durwans turned out as 
smart as ever. "Wliat has broken the carriage here ?" 
Asked Mr. Hare, The durwans explained the matter 
to him, and pointed out to him the way the sailor had 
gone. Mr. Hare old as he was, went off like an arrow, 

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In ten minutes the man was secured aad.jxiadt over to 
the police. 

Liberatian of coolies. — 
Still better known is the gallant way in wiiich he 
rescued a number of coolies who had been decoyed 
to a house near the same place, Tantuniah with 
false promises, in oraer to be shipped afterwards 
to Mauritius. The matter subsequently formed the 
subject of a police investigation, I believe. I saw 
the poor coolies on my way to school, but I did 
not see the rescue, and have but a vague re- 
collection of the whole afiair. 

Hare's benevolence. — 
Of the nobler parts of Mr. Hare's character, who 
that ever came in contact witk him does not know ? 
The boys he helped wi h money or with clothes or 
with books, — the boys he favored with good counsel 
or admonition, — the boys he tended in illness — are not 
their names — Legion f Will it ever be known in thii 
world the good, that this single man, neither wealthy 
nor clever, found it in his power to do ? 

Hare's funeral. — 
I have a vivid impresson of Mr. Hare's death. 
He was then a Judge of Small Caxise Court and a 
colleague of my father. I saw the corpse thrice 
during the day and accompained the funeral cortege. 
There had been showers during the day, and the 
streets were partially covered with rain water. There 

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was « cyclone the day after.^was there not? The 
hundreds and hundreds of people, clerks from their 
offices, school boys from the educat onal institutioa, 
native gentlemen, sircars and servants, and his own 
countrymen { but these were few ) — of the vast 
crowd that wended their way from Hare Street to 
College Square ! I was too young to press through 
the crowd and stand by the grave, I only remember 
the long procession, and the people gazing from tops 
of the houses and from the windows as it passed by. 
When I found at College Square that I could not 
penetrate to his coffin, I went to the Sanskrit Collie, 
and ascended up to the roof whence I ( quite alone 
in my glory ) had a magnificent bird's eye viexr of 
the whole scene, — a sad mournful scene but not 
without it% lessons. 

Hare's religion, — 
Mr. Hare has sometimes been charged with a 
want of faith in the doctrines of our blessed religion- 
I never spoke to him on the subject. I was not a 
Christian myself when he died. Like Mr. Benson 
the Minister at Castlewood in Thackeray's Esmond 
I can only say "I know not what the Colonel's 
doctrine was, but his life was that of a veritable 

Baboo Ramtonoo Lahiree 
Hare's services to the Medical College. — 
I hope you know what Mr. Hare with Russick's 
assistance did for the Medical College. Dr. Banerjea 


( 128 ) 

majr also know it. He was also a helper with them, 
I believe. For he might have been one of the 
teachers of the School Society's Schools at the time; 
which Hare would - not allow to be called after his 
own, though people would not listen. 

Visiting tke sick in a filthiest spot. — 

K. a poor student of the old Hindu College, was 
attacked with cholera, or something like it, and Mr. 
Hate, who always had medicines io his paiki, gave him 
a dose. He came to his lodgii^ about the middle of 
the night to enquire how he was. The people in the 
house would not open the door, fearing, that it 
might be drunken sailors who were lurking there 
as they sometimes did. Mr. Hare then suspecting 
as much, cried out his name aloud, and tjije purpose 
of his visit. The spot was one of the filthiest that 
can be conceived. 

On another occasion when R. vvas laboring under 
an attack of fever for several days Mr. Hare attended, 
had quinine made into pills, for his patient could 
not swallow the bitter powder, and brought them 
to him. They were handed over to him, he promised 
to lake them, but, be it said to his (R's.) shame, he 
never did so. He had no faith in their efficacy and 
engaged a Kabiraja. 

It is well known how Mr. Hare received a blow 
from a stick, on his head, at Tuntunia, near the 
temple of Kali, in attempting to pursue a thief 
who had robbed a child of its ornaments, at night- 


( 129 ) 

fall. He was laid up for some time sfter this e\-ent» 
but as it did not occur in my sight, I shall not do 
more than allude to it. 

Baboo Caundersaikhuk Dev. 

Acting the good Samaritan, — 
The anecdote you mention of Mi. Hare made so 
deep an impression on my mind at the time that it is 
at the lapse of upwards of half a century still ftesh in 
my memory. I was all wet when I presented myself 
ip his place. Immediately on seeing me he brought 
Out a towel for me to dress in, and on my refusing to 
wear it, as it was scarcely large enough to cover, my 
makedness he brought to me a tablecloth and with his 
own hands wrapped me in it, wiping my head at 
the same time with a handkerchief of his. He then 
busied himself with drying both my dhooty and 
chadder, first by clearing off the water with his own 
hands, then givii^ the clothes to a bearer to put them 
near some hot place downstairs and afterwards, when 
the rain was over and it was sunny again, clearing his 
verandha towards the church and laying them himself 
over the place to be dried. While this was being done 
he amused me with experiments on the electric 
machine and galvanic battery, I remember also 
another occasion when I called on him in the 
afternoon and it began to rain hard after my arrival 
at his place. The wind and rain continued till after 
candle light and it was time for him to dine. I wanted 
to go home but he did not allow me to do so but 

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sent for a moodi who had a shop just at his gate and 
wished him to give me as much sundesh and other 
Bweet-meat and plantain, &c., as I could eat. At the 
time I had so refreshed myself in the shop he was 
still dining and made me sit by him. 

At about half past 8 or 9 p. m. he took up a 
cudgel and wished me to accompany him- I walked 
on his side and he continued talkii^ with me on this 
suhject or that to a child's liking until we arrived at 
Chuna Gully. Here be shewed signs of fear, telling 
me that was the rendevouz of drunken sailors and he 
might be obliged to fight with them to keep me safe 
put-they are very devils and knew not what the conse- 
quences might be of his battle. In this way we 
arrived near the old Thanna of Puttuldangah then 
just opposite the house of fiaiddyo Nath Das, Mr. 
Hare's dewan, almost opposite his tomb now in the 
College Street. The ne\f roads were not made at 
the time and the paths Of the neighbourhood were 
very narrow and dirty. When we reached this place 
he told me that my house could not be more than a 
hundred yards thence and I could of course go home 
alone- I answered 'certainly' and ran home. He was 
still not content and walked he surely on. From the 
south eastern corner of Roop Narain Ghoshal's not 
knowing where my house was he began crying aloud 
Chunder, Chunder, but his wOrds were not intelligible 
to the people close by. My father however was 
standing at the door of his place, hastened to him 
and asked him if he wanted me. He said "no I wish 

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only to know if he is safely arrived at home" andon 
being satisfied on this point he went his way. 
Hare's labors for the Hindu College. — 

I was Only 8 years old in 1818 when I believe the 
Hindu Collie was established and I cannot speak, of 
my own personal knowledge, anything about his 
labours to get up our almamater, but I have been told 
he laboured very hard for this object and went literally 
abegging from door to door for this purpose. Rajah 
Protap Chand of Burdwan was very fond of flyii^ 
kites, and there were two or three places in my 
immediate neighbourhood where he used to frequent, 
in the proper season, to have a view of this play. 
He was in one of those places, sometime before 1818. 
Mr. Hare, I was told, went over to see him there and 
talked on the subject of the College and forced the 
Rajah to promise to go to see him the next day. This 
however, I tell you from mere hearsay, for, I was 
six Or seven then. 

Hare always ready to admit poor boys. — 

My elder brother himself, a student of the first 
class, wanted to get me into the College, sometime 
in 1819, but was told there was no likelihood of his 
bein^ able to do so for some months next coming, 
SIS there was no vacant seat for which he could nomi- 
nate me, as Secretary to the School Society. A very 
short time afterwards, however, on the day of the 
examination of the boys in their studies by the Chief 
Justice East and others, he wrote a letter himself on 

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( 132 ) 

Mr. D. Anselm's table and put it before Ladly Mohuo 
Tagore and got his signature upon it. So that I was 
entered a student of the college, in two or three days 
afterwards., — Such favors were not shewn to me alone 
as you will find on enquiry. He was in the habit of 
always denying to comply with a request but the more 
forcibly he denied, the surer he was to do as he was 
asked speedily. 

Baboo Chunder Cumar Moitree, 

When I was in Mr. Hare's School, I knew many 
traits in his character distinguished by humanity and 
large hearted benevolence. It was a very rainy day, 
when there was downright downpour of incessent rain 
and winds from 4 p. M. to 11 p, M. blew very hard 
when information was brought to him, that one Rada 
nath Sen then living with the late Lokenath Bose's 
family at Bagh Bazar was taken seriously and dangero- 
usly ill with remittent fever, I was in the School at 
the time and Mr. Hare asked me whether I lived in 
that quarter. I replied in the affirmative, and he then 
told me to accompany him, which I did at 9 p. M. tu 
a hired carriage. We remained in Radanath Sen's 
house for nearly two hours and he did all he could in 
the way of medical assistance. 

I know of innumerable instances where in the cases 
of the boys of his School felling ill he used to render 
them every medical assistance from his pocket and 
even giving money for their diet, particularly on rainy 
days he never allowed the boys to expose themselves 

„,. Coosk 

( 133 ) 

to Fflin, on the contrary he gave them sweetmeats to 
carry them home. I may add that when I was ill, I 
was taken care of by him- 

Baboo Shib Chumder Dbb. 
Not partial to Ike boys of his Sehool. 

David Hare was said to have been partial to the 
pupils of the Calcutta School Society's School (now 
called the Hare School), but the fact was that this 
School was under his' personal management, so that 
it was quite natural that he should have taken greater 
interest in the welfare of that institution, and that 
the boys, who were sent from it to the Hindu College 
(now Hindu School) as free students under sOme 
Rule then existing, should have received from him 
the same degree of attention which they used to do 
when studying in the former School. From this cir- 
cumstance people humourously called these boys as 
the adopted sons of Mr. Hare. But his philanthropy 
was not confined to any particular institution, but 
was extended to all. 

Encouraging Successful Pupils. 
As a proof of this, I may mention an instance in 
my own case. When I was a student of the 4th 
Class, Hindu College, and while sitting in the class 
one day, Mr. Hare came and presented me with a 
copy of Taia Chand Chakraburtti's English and Ben- 
gali Dictionary ( a work just then published ). This 
circumstance quite surprised me, as I was a pay schol- 

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( 134 ) . 

ar of the College, and had but slight acquaintance 
with him at the time. On my asking him the reason 
of his making the present to me, he said that he was 
much pleased with the manner in which I had acquitted 
myself at an examination oT the class held a few days 
previously by some gentleman, and that he gave me 
the book as a token of his gratification. From that 
time he took great interest in my welfare. It was at 
his suggestion that I applied for a scholarship, and 
obtained it after passing the necessary examination. 

Baboo Gopee Kissen Mitter. 
His labours not to allow the boys to get vicious. 
How to promote the interest of the boys under his 
charge was the lifelong study of David Hare. To 
encourage the diligent, to incite the idle, and to bring 
back the truant to the path of duty, was his work 
by day and thought at night. So great was his anx- 
iety to reclaim the black sheep of his flock, that not 
satisfied with the result of the inquiries made by 
Casee Maliee, a eonfidential servant employed by him 
to ascertain and report on the cause of absence of the 
most irregular boys, he not unfrequently called person- 
ally at their houses and in case he did not meet them 
there, traced them to their haunts, sometimes the most 
out of the way places imaginable, and pounced upon 
them when they least expected it. The way in which 
he brought about the reform of such boys is most 
wonderful as many of them in afterlife proved to be 
the pride of their parents and the ornaments of their 

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( 135 ) 

country. Several instances in which this marvelous 
change has been wrought, might be cited but I am 
apprehensive lest by so doing I should unwittingly 
cast slur upon the life and character of the parties 
concerned, most of whom have departed this life. 

The reason why he was apparently partial to the 
sons of the rich. 

Hare was somewhat Indulgent to sons of the weaU 
thy natives and made large allowance in their case. 
He even attended the festivals at their houses, as if to 
correct abuse by his presence, and while there, sent an 
example of temperance by partaking, by way of refresh- 
ment, of cocoanut-milk and fruits only- 

When on one occasion some of his boys remon- 
strated with him for being partial to the rich. Hare 
smiled and said that the consideration shown to them 
was not without an object as the advantage which the 
country would derive from an educated aristocracy 
was incalculable and prejudiced as they then were 
against English education, it was his strenuous endea- 
vour to attract them to the Schools and Colleges as 
much as he possibly could. It must be in the re- 
collection of many of his contemporaries who still sur- 
vived him that he was eminently successful in his laud- 
able exertions in this direction, so that many an ortho- 
dox and superstitious but rich parent who had formerly 
shrunk from the thought of putting their children 
into an English School was but too glad to hand 
them over to the paternal care of Hare whom they 

{ 136 ) 

regarded all but a Hindu in thought, feelings aod 

Baboo Nund Lall Mitter. 
Doing good to the helpless. 

Here is one interesting anecdote of Mr. David 
Hare's philanthropic soul. One day, Mr. David Hare 
and a native friend of his were sitting in an appart- 
ment in his school, when a poor widow made her 
appearance and begged the favour of Mr. David Hare 
to admit her only son into his school. But her request 
was not complied with as the last class in trhich the 
boy was to be placed was already quite full. Upon 
this refusal, she burst out into tears upon the spot 
and traced her taidy steps back towards, home, 
wailing aloud, the whole way through for her son's 
bad luck. But the heart of Mr. David Hare was too 
sensible to be unaffected by the vi'ailings of poor 
humanity. Presently, he turned round to his friend 
and communicated to him his anxiety for knowii^ the 
true circumstances of the widow. He also engaged 
his friendly company in searching out the poor 
woman's lodging in the evening. They came into 
Setaram Ghose's Lane in which, they were informed, 
the poor widow used to live. Hearing that Mr. David 
Hare himself and a Babu had come to sec her, the 
poor widow ran out of her cotts^e to greet them, 
taking her son with her at the same time. She uttered 
not a word but stood still, while large drops of tears 
fell trickling down her cheeks. This scene operated ao 

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( 137 ) 

powerfully upon the generous man's heart, and 
wrought up such a host of tender feelings within him, 
that he lost the power of speech for some time, then 
addressing the poor widow told her that henceforth 
he would take upon himself the charge of educating 
her son, that now he gave her 4 Rs. for the mainten- 
ance of herself and sOn, which he would continue to 
pay regularly every month until her son should be in 
a position to shift for himself. This act of generosity 
quite amazed the widow. With tears of joy, she 
began to pour forth her benedictions upon Mr. Hare, 
her benefactor, who she said was not a man but an 
angel come in disguise upon earth to relieve distressed 
humanity. Mr. David Hare who disliked to hear 
any praises of himself, immediately left the place. 

Baboo Sreeram Chattbbjee. 
Hare spent large sums of money for our education. 
Hare directed his attention to the establishment 
of schools and collies. He established an English 
school at Patuldaunga and a Vernacular One at 
Thuntania to which no fee was attached, but said to 
have been supported solely by his individual means. 
I was Once told by late Baboo Tarruck Nauth Ghose 
my quOndom tutor and a great favorite of Hare — 
that he spent some laks of Rupees in the cause of 
native advancement and that when the fund, which he 
had set apart for the purpose, fell short, he had to 
recourse to a wealthy relative of his in China who 
was alike generous and sympathising. He also sold all 

D,-:..JL, Google 

138 ) 

his landed property which stood in the name of his 
Banian one Goluck Kurmocar of Pataldanga. It is 
said that all those lands lying On the south and west 
of the College square once belonged to Hare. The 
fact of his drawing money from his relative, as stated 
above, in order to defray the expenses of the school, 
I can testify from a letter which Mr. Hare addressed, 
to his niece in China, and which before despatch, he 
asked me to see if there were any mistakes in ortho- 

Medical College. 

I will state however one fact which will shew how 
Mr. Hare was anxious to see the project of the 
Medical College finally brought about and settled 
without opposition. One evening as I was sittii^ 
with him, I saw Baboo Muddousuden Goopta the 
then professor of the Sanscrit Medical Science of 
the Sanscrit College entering the room in all haste. 
Mr. Hare viewing him said at once "well — Muddoo 
what have you been doing all this time ? Do you 
not know what amount of pain and anxious thoughts 
you have kept me in for a week almost f I have been 
to Radhacant, and I am hopeful from what he said to 
me. Now what you have to say. Have you found 
the text in your shaster authorising" the dissection of 
dead bodies'* ? Muddo answering in the affirmative 
said "Sir ! fear no opposition from the orthodox 
section of the community, I and my Pundit friends 
are prepared to meet them if they come forward which 


( 139 ) 

I am sure they will not do". Mr. Hare felt himself 
relieved at this declaration on the part of the 
Professor, aad said he would see his Lordship to- 
morrow positively meaning as far as I can recollect 
I-ord Auckland. 

Hare's Watchfulness, 

An instance of. Mr. Hare's watchfulness regard- ' 
ing the movements of the boys of hia school as well 
as those of the College is as follows, A turbulent big 
boy, who was always bent upon mischief, had a quar- 
rel with another boy junior in age and sbmewhat 
handsome. The former ^vanted to have his company, 
but the latter never liked him- In order to revenge 
himself, the big boy got a lampoon written by the edi- 
tor of a Vernacular newspaper and had it printed. 
The next thing he did was to have the paper stuck on 
the wall of the College Hall so that every one might 
see it, and quiz his enemy. Accordingly on a dark 
stormy night at about 1 o'clock he entered the College 
Hall by the assistance of the parties who must have 
been bribed. He had a lantern in his hand, and as 
he was about to finish his work (the slicking of the 
printed paper) in came a living soul dripping wt 
head to fooc for it was then raining heavily,— 
was you imagine ? Aye-it was that ever watchfi 
ubiquitious David Hare .' He had an inkling 
act before, and was on the spot in time to sa 
character of an eminent boy. The wicked fello 
attempted to expose him to the ridicule of 

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( 140 ) 

belongs to an opulent family, and is now considered 
to be a great man in his neighbourhood. 
I had the above from Hare himself. 

Hare's Charity. 

Mr- Hare's charity was not confined to educa- 
tional institutions, but it extended to private circles. 
On two occasions of the Poojah I bought for distribu- 
tion by him Dhooties and Saries worth 400 Rupees. 
Some of the recipients of these clothes were the in- 
d^ent boys of his school and their mothers and sis- 
ters. You cannot but know that Mr, Hare was a visitor 
to every family pOor or rich on all joyous occasions 
and his name was therefore as familiar as household 
words in the native part of the town. Whenever a 
student fell ill, of whom he had a good opinion, he 
used to see him daily, and to cheer him with encour- 
aging words. I myself felt that good man's presence as 
an anodyne to the pain of illness which had jeopardised 
my life. To Davjd Hare we all owe a debt of endless 
gratitude. He was to us a father, a friend, a guide, 
and a philosopher. The men of the present generation 
may not value Hare as the remnant of the old would 
do. But they ought to know that Hare was the 
pioneer of the English education in India, and that it 
was he who made their fatheis what they were. 

Hare's Vigilance. 

The vigilance of Mr. Hare as a superintending 
power over his pupils was as great as that of a detective. 

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( Ml ) 

In those days when he lived, the affair of Snan Jattra 
at Mohesh was disgraceful one. Baboos of all 
classes used to go there with boat-loads of prostitutes 
regardless of their reputation and character. Hare 
knew of this, and lest any student would join the 
party, he would keep a sharp watch at every ghat Of 
the river. By this mesns he often succeeded in 
detecting the truant and punishing him afterwards. 

Mr. Hare took great interest in the improvenient 
of penmanship of his boys. Then the field of compe- 
tition was not open, and he knew full well that most 
of the boys, especially of the poor class, must look' to 
their goose quill for their livelihood. It was for this 
reason that he made a rule for writing half an hour 
every day. 

Simple diet. 

Mr. Hare was as simple in his dress as in his diet. 
He was excessively fond of magoor fish which 1 made 
present of many a time. I had heard from him that 
he acquired a taste for this fish from his friend Rajah 
Ram Mohun Roy. Our methies he was also fond of, 
and poor Protaup Chunder used to send them to him 
every now and then. I doubt if Hare was ever in 
the habit of taking wine. I know he preferred cocoa- 
nut milk to all other drinks. In some respect he had 
Bengaleefied himself in the matter of his food, and he 
used to praise our Rishees for their livii^ mostly up- 
on fruits and milk. 

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( W2 ) 

David Hare was the proprietor of a half finished 
house in Hare Street. There was an open space on 
the front of it. Near the gate there was a moody'a 
shop under an umbrageous tree. The moody supplied 
native visitors with slips of plantain leaf to serve as 
visiting cards. Mr, Hare generally rose at 8 A. M. 
On Sundays and holidays his bouse was crowded 
by native visitors of all ages and classes from "dewy 
mom" to night. Infants and boys were supplied 
with toys and illustrated books. Some ran from 
one side to another — while others thronged round his 
chair putting to him questions which their curiosity 
might suggest and trying his patience in every 
possible way. Hare's breakfast was simple. At 
10 A. M. his palkie was loaded with books and 
medicines and he left home for his daily work — the 
inspection of the schools and colleges with which he 
was connected. As long as ihe Arpooly schools 
existed, he spent several hours there and used to sit 
occasionally on a luctapose, keeping his watchful 
eyes on the boys around him. Latterly his inspection 
was confined to the Hindu College, Patuldanga School 
and the Medical College, • where not only the boys 

• "I do not intend to dwell upon my difficulties, but it is 
uccessarj for a full comprehension of the subject that I 
should allude to them, and I feel it my duly to do so in a 
somewhat marked manuer in justice to him through whose 
instrumentality, chiefly, they were surmouuted. This 
zealous coadjutor and invaluable assistant was Mr. David 

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( 143 ) 

but the patients received his particular attention. He 
was so naturally kind hearted that he felt anxious as 
to the recovery of the patients and therefore daily 
noted the improvement of their health. Hare's diurnal 
inspection was of searching nature. The first thing 
he did was to go through the register of attendance, 
to make out a list of the absent boys, to see the 
different classes and watch their progress, to hear 
what the teachers and boys had to say, to encourage 

Hare, Scarcely had the order of Government for the insti* 
tution of the College appeared, before this gentleman, 
prompted by the dictates of his own benevolent spirit, 
having ascertained the obiects of the undertaking and 
becoming convinced of tlje vast benefits likely" to accrue 
from it, immediately afforded me his influence in further- 
ance of the ends it had in view. 

"His advice and assistance have been to me, at all times, 
most valuable ; his freq^uent attendance at the Lectures, and 
aC the Institution generally, have materially tended to 
promote the spirit of good feeliug aud friendly union among- 
the pupils, so essential to tlte well-working of the system j 
noi' must I omit to mention, that his patience and discretion 
have animated and supported me under circumstances of 
peculiar difficultf which at one time appeared to threaten 
the very existence of the Institution, In truth, I may say. 
that without Mr, Hare's influence, any attempt to form a 
Hindu Medical Class would have been futile, and under this 
feeling I tcust I bespeak the indulgence of the Committee, 
in availing myself of the present opportunity to record 
publicly, though inadeq^uately, haw much the cauee of 
Native Medical education, owes to that gentleman, as well 
as the extent of my deep obligation to him personally," 

Dr. Bramley. 

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( 144 ) 

meritorious boys with presents of books, and to 
admonish and stir up those who were idle, slow and 
inattentive. From the Hindu college, he went to the 
Patuldai^ school where the same sort of inspection 
was'repeated. He then came to the Medical College 
where a lai^e number of his boys had been admitted 
as foundation pupils and as he was intimately acquai- 
nted with them, he had nO difficulty in rousing them 
to a sense of their duty. His boys were the pioneers 
of medical education and led on others who came in 
afterwards. After visiting the Medical College, he 
came back to the Patuldanga School where he stayed 
late in the evening, examining the hand-writing of the 
boys and giving direction for its improvement. He 
then sent his confidential servant to enquire after the 
cause of absence of the boys whose names had been 
collected from the Register or he visited them himself. 
His constant enquiry as to every boy was most search- 
ii^. It embraced his habits at home, his conduct to 
the members of his family, the companions he kept, 
the nature of his amusements at home and elsewhere, 
the time he dedicated to study and in fact all infor- 
mation to satisfy himself regarding the healthy devel- 
opment of the mind. Not satisfied with the enquiries 
made, he was constantly seen holding conversation 
with boys in the school room, play ground or some 
quiet place during the tiffin time or after the school 
hour. He was an excellent moral physician. It took 
him no time to make diagnosis of the juvenile moral 
disorders and he possessed wonderful healii^ powers. 

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{ 145 ) 

The erring he corrected— the waverii^ he strengthened 
^the desponding he inspired with hope — the troubled 
he tranquilized — the vicious he reclaimed. He strenu- 
ously discouraged lying and vice in every shape. He 
took the utmost care that every boy should be brought 
up righteously and was thus indefatigable in the 
extension of the kingdom of God. He aimed therefore 
at subjective evolution. Objectivity restit^ on creeds 
and dogmas was to him apparently a matter of minor 
consideration. Example is however more efficacious 
than precept. What he did himself daily, vras the 
best moral teaching to the boys. — Those who were 
helpless and had not the means of subsistence, he 
educated at his Own expense, helping them with money 
for their food and raiment. Those who required 
occasional pecuniary support received it from faim. 
Those who came to him without the means of buying 
books were assisted. Those who were sick received 
medicines and medical aid from him. He could sit 
by their sick bed for n^hts watching and nursing them 
with parental affection until they were cured. If a 
boy were taken ill and did not inform him of his 
sickness, he felt much vexed. He was incessant in his 
efforts in bettering the condition of poor boys by 
getting them appointments and watched their career 
with intense interest. He was equally kind to lads of 
better circumstance in this respect. He not only 
benefitted the young men in every possible way but 
was ever ready to tender his assistance in all matters 
in which tt was solicited. 

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( 146 ) 

These are exemplications of pure love. 

Wordsworth says : 

"Love betters what is best." 

"Even here below, but more in heaven above" 
• • • • 

"Bui it chaste hearts, uninfluenced by the power, 

"Of outward chaise their blooms a deathless 

"That breathes on earth, tbe air of paradise." 

Truly Ramtoiio Lahiree says "what Hare did for 
me, he did for thousands." Hare's generosity whether 
exercised on a laige or small scale was equally felt and 
every one whom he benefitted thought that to him he 
was the greatest friend. 

The Aryas maintain that every human beii:^ has 
a mind the sensous, the cognitive and the finite 
principle and a soul, the spiritual, infinite and eternal 
principle. As the mind is absorbed in the soul, in that 
proportion the soul is developed and, becomes free 
from bondage. This is what Paul says "the spiritual 
body"— what Luke says "the kii^dom of heaven 
within us" — what Bunsen says "good consciousness." 
which the Aryas chanted during the Rig Veda period. 
It is not the lot of every person to attain this state. 
But those who think more of the "spirit" and less of 
the "flesh"' as several of our eminent teachers, bene- 
factors, and "pure in heart" did, raise themselves to 
the spiritual condition. These are the persons who 
"breathe the air of paradise" who like geneal suns, 
impart warmth and life, equally to all around them. 

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( 1" ) 

In this way we can solve the highest appreciation of 
Hare's benevolence by every one of those whom he 

History affords instances of remarkable changes at 
certain periods. Circumstances create agents. Cousin 
says God sends special agents when circumstances 
are ripe for their advent. To us ihe appearance of 
Hare in Calcutta as the pioneer and father of native 
education was providential as there wa» no natuarl 
bond of sympathy between him and the Bengalees. 
The Aryas saw God in everything and Paul says in 
Him "we live, move and have our being." Those who 
exalt tbeoiselves spiritually become his instruments 
and Hare was one. Without him, who could have 
secured the cordial co-operation of the native commu- 
Bi^, gone from door to door for subscriptions to the 
Hindu College and kept up the interest created in the 
native mind In the education of the Hindu yonth ? 

Mr. Hare had no family cares. The only care he 
had was the doing good to the Hindus. But the best 
of men are sometime shaken and tempests pass over 
them. After Hare made over his business to Mr. Grey 
he speculated, more to enable himself to do good 
largely than to build a fortune. Either owing to the 
unfavourable results of his ventures or to the failur*? 
of the houses where he had kept his money, he 
in great difficulties and he told me one morning 
he would have perhaps to pass through the Insol 
Court. To the good and godly, tribulation is a pre 
of purification, leading to spiritual progression. Ha 


( 1+8 ) 

met with reverses, Mr, Hare quietly finished the house 
he lived in and made it over to his creditors. Although 
in adverse circumst nces, he was as regular as ever 
in the performance of the duties he had imposed upon 
himself. He continued to show the same self-abnega- 
tion — the same self- surrender — the same disinterested 
love for his neighbour as had preeminently characterized 
his career as the father of native education and the 
exemplar of unselfishness. . He was never tired of 
doing good to others and sought for every opportunity 
for ;he exercise of his benevolence. If ever any allusion 
were much to the good he vras doing, he was vexed 
and his occasional reply vras that what he was doing 
he was doing for his amusement. Another proof of 
his possessing an exalted soul was that he showed 
true charity in judging of Others and he never 
encouraged any one to speak ill of his neighbour. 

If then Hare was devoid of motive and was what 
the Aryas say "liwt^" i. e. free from desire to receive 
return in any shape, if he deprived himself of the 
comforts of life and if his existence and fortune were 
devoted to the good of his fellowmen although belong- 
ing to a different race, was he not "laying up treasures 
in heaven and not looking at the things which are 
seen and temporal but at the things which are unseen 
and eternal" ? The next shock which Mr. Hare revived 
was in the death of his two brothers. I saw him in 
mourning at the Hindu College. His face showed 
resignation and he told me in a spirit of calmness 
that he had lost one of his brothers. When his other 


( 14V ) 

brother died, he was living at Mr. Grey's, He read 
to me the letter he had received, bursting into tears 
and was unable/ for some time to check his grief. 
Hare was a loving brother and could well realize what 
fraternal relation was. The man who amidst reverses, 
travail, tribulation and affliction, finds serenity within, 
sees Divinity in his soul — his happiness is not in the 
world tpitkaut, but in the world toithin. His happiness 
is in the very depths of his soul — in unseliishness — in 
pure benevolence — in suffering for others. He realises 
within himself the joy and within grief of his neighbour 
— he identifies his prosperity and adversity with his 
own. Though Hare had still a brother in England, he 
gave up all intention of returning home and continued 
to work here as a "heavy laden" pilgrim lookii^ for 
"rest" at the conclusion of his journey- He lived to 
see that the liberalising effects of education which 
thousands had received through his instrumentality 
were being extended to several districts of Bengal — that 
culminated in the improvement of their moral tone — 
in the amelioration of their domestic and social 
relations and in the incipient evolution of their 
spiritual life evidenced by their earnest enquiry after 

For the good done by Mr. Hare to the Hindus, — 
"not in word, nor in tongue but in deed and truth," 
the portrait, the tomb, the tablet and the statue are no 
doubt monuments of Our gratitude but they are after 
all perishable and "shall dissolve." The real impe- 
rishable monument is the pure grateful recollection 

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(150 ) 

of our benefactor in the national heart, and this we 
pray may be transmitted from generation to generation, 
associated with our spiritual adoration of God in 
dispelling the gloom of this land through the instru- 
mentality of David Hare, enabling us to draw frOm 
his life invaluable lessons — so instructive — so ennobling 
— so enduring as long as disinterested benevolence and 
philanthropy are appreciated as true manifestations of 
the soul and a means of fitting it to hold communion 
with the Infinite Source of love, power and wisdom. 

t* Google 


Rules of the Hindu College. 

1. The primary object of this Institution is, the 
tuition of the sons of respectable Hindoos in the 
English and Indian language, and in the literature and 
science of Europe and Asia, 

2. The admission of pupils shall be left to the 
discretion of the Managers of the Institution. 

3. The. College shall include a School Patshalla 
and an Academy {Maka Patshalla), The former to 
be established immediately, the latter as soon as may 
be practicable. 

4. In the school shall be taught English and 
Bengali, Reading, Writii^, Grammar and Arithmetic 
by the improved method of instruction. The Persian 
language may also be taught in the School until the 
Academy be established as far as shall be found 

5. In the Academy besides the study of such 
language as cannot be so conveniently taught in the 
School, instiuction shall be given in History, 
Geography, Chronology, Astronomy, and Mathematics, 
Chemistry, and other sciences. 

6. The Managers will determine at what age 
students shall be admitted to the School and Academy. 

The English language shall not be taught to boys 
under eight years of age, without the pennisaion of 
the Managers in each particular instance. 

7. Public examinatians shall be held at stated 
times to be fixed by the Manners, and students who 
particularly distinguish themselves shall receive 
honorary rewards. 

8. Boys who are distinguished in the School for 
proficiency and good conduct, shall at the discretion 
of the Managers receive further instructions at the 
Academy, free of chaise. If the funds of the institu- 
tion should not be sufficient to defray the expenses, 
benevolent individuals shall be invited to contribute 
the amount. 

9. When a student is about to leave either the 
School or the Academy, a certificate shall be given 
him under the signature of the Superintendents, staling 
the period during which he has studied the subject of 
his studies and the proficiency made by him with such 
particulars his name, age, parentage and place of 
residence as may be requisite to identify him. 

Funds and Privileges. 

10. There shall be two distinct funds to be deno- 
minated the "College Fund," and the "Education Fund," 
for which separate subscription books shall be opened 
and all persons who have already subscribed to this 
Institution shall be at liberty to diiect an appropriation 
of their contribution to either fund or partly to 


11. The object of the College Fanrf is to form a 
charitable foundation for the advancement of learning 
and in aid of the Education Fund. Its ultimate purpose 
will be the purchase of ground, and construction of 
suitable buildings thereupon, for the permanent use of 
the College, as well as to provide all necessary articles 
of furniture, books, a philosophical apparatus and 
whatever else may be requisite for the full accomplish- 
ment of the objects of the Institution. In the mean 
time until a sufficient sum be raised for erecting a 
College, the contributions to this fund Bwy be applied 
to the payment of house rent and any other current 
expenditure on account of the College. 

12. The amount subscribed to the Education Fund 
shall be appropriated to the education of pupils and 
expense of tuition. 

13. All subscribers will be expected to pay the 
amount of their contributions to the Treasurer, either 
at the time of subscription or at the latest within a 
month, from that time the payment to be made in 
cash or what the Treasurer may consider equi>alent 
to cash. 

H. All the subscribers to the College fund before 
the 2l3t day^of May 1817, being the anniversary of the 
day on which it was agreed to establish this Institution, 
shall be considered Founders of the College ; and their 
names shall be recorded as such with the amount of 
their respective contributions. The highest single 
contributors at the close of the period above mentioned 
viz :— On the 21st day of May 1817 shall be recorded 

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Chief Founders of the College, and all persons contribu- 
ting separately the sum of 500 rupees and upward 
shall be classed next ; and distinguished as Principal 
Founders, under their subscriptions shall be registered 
those of the other subscribers to the College Fund, 
arranged according to the amount contributed by each 
individual and the dates of subscription. 

15. Every single contributor of 500 rupees and 
upward to the College Fund before the aggaregate 
Bum of a lac and a half of sicca rupees may have been 
subscribed to that Fund, shall be au Heriditable 
Governor of the College. He shall be entitled, on 
payment of this subscription to act in person or by an 
appointed deputy, as a member of the Committee of 
Managers. He may have his office of Heriditable 
Governor, with all its privileges, by a written will or 
other documents, to any of his sons or other indivi- 
dual of his family, whom he may wish to succeed 
there to on his demise, should he fail thus to appoint 
a successor, his legal heir shall be at liberty to 
nominate any one of his family to succeed him. Should 
a question arise among them concerning the right of 
succession it shall he determined by the Managers. 

16. Subscribers to the College Fund, who are not 
Governors and whose joint or separate subscriptions 
to it (made before a lac and a half of sicca rupees shall 
have been contributed to it) shall collectively amount 
to 500 rupees shall be entitled to elect any one of 
their member to be a director of the College. After 
paying their subscription amounting to SCO rupees. 

they shall transmit a written notification to the Secretary 
of the Committee of Managers, bearing their respective 
seals Or signatures and specifying the name and desig- 
nation of the person elected by them to be a Director 
for the current year. A statement of their several 
contributions to the College Fund shall also accom- 
pany the notification or be included in it, for the 
purpose of shewing their title to make the election. 

17. The persons selected, after the regularity of 
their election has been verified by Committee of 
Managers shall be considered Directors till the 2ist 
day of May next, on or before which date a similar 
election and notification to the Secretary shall be made 
for the ensuing year and so on successively from year 
to year provided however that on the death of any 
joint or separate subscriber, the privilege of election 
shall be considered extinct with respect to his propor- 
tion or the amount of any separate subscription made 
by him and included in the aggregate sum of 500 
rupees, which must consequently be supplied by an 
additional contribution or the union of an additional 
subscriber in order to maintain the privileges of 
electing a Director for the ensuing year. 

18. An individual contribution of 500 rupees and 
upward to tne College fund made subsequently to the 
aggregate subscription of a lac and a half of sicca 
rupees to that fund shall not entitle the contributors 
to become an Heriditabk Governor but he shall be a 
Governor for life and be entitled, on payment of his 
subscription to act in person or by an appointed 


deputy as a member of the Committee ot Managers 
during his life time. 

19. The managers will determine what ahall be 
the privileges, with regard to the election of annual 
Directors to be enjoyed by the contributors to the 
College Fund, or further sums of money subscribed 
after the completion of a lac and a half of rupees sicca. 

20. The subscription to the Education Fund shall 
be restricted for the present to the admission of one 
Hundred scholars into the School of the Institution ; 
that being calculated to be the greatest number, which 
can be admitted during the first year without detriment 
to the good order of the School and the progress of 
the scholars. The subscriptioo will however be 
extended as soon as a greater number can be admitted. 

21. A subscriber of 400 sicca rupees to the 
Education Fund shall be entitled to send a pupil 
to receive instruction in the school free of any expense 
for the term of four years. The subscription with 
a corresponding privilege may also be made for any 
shorter period not being less than one year, at the 
rate of 120 rupees per annum. 

22. If the pupil for whose tuition a subscription 
shall have been made, be found on examination, 
qualified to leave the school before the expiration of 
the period subscribed for, he shall be entitled to 
receive a proportion of the same paid by his patron 
corresponding with the terms unexpired. 

23. If a pupil die before the expiration of the 
period subscribed for, his patron may at his option 

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send another for the unexpired term or receive back a 
few portion of his subscription or have a propor- 
tionate credit in making a new subscription. 

24. In all calculation of time relative to the 
Education Fund the English calender shall be observed 
and fractional parts of a mouth shall not be reckoned 
against the Institution. 

25. Any member of contributors lo the education 
fund (not being Governor) before the completion one 
hundred scholarships mentioned in the 20th article, 
and the aggregate of whose subscriptions may amount 
to 5,000 rupees, shall have the same privilege of 
electing an annual Director as is given by the 16th 
and 17th articles, to subscribers of the same amount 
to the College fund : except that their privilege, 
instead of extending to the life of the subscribers shall 
be restricted to the period for which the subscription 
is made with this limitation of privilege, they may 
also unite with subscribers to the College Fund in 
electing Directors. 


26. The government of the College shall be vested 
in a Committee of Managers to consist of Heriditable 
Governors, Governors for Life and annual Directors, 
or their respective Deputies. 

27. The Managers shall possess full powers to 
carry into effect the whole of the rules now establish- 
ed. They may also pass additional Rules. 

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28. The Managers shall be Trustees of the Fund 
and shall be empowered to issue any requisite instruc- 
tions to the Treasurer, as well as to pass all accounts 
of receipts and disbursements, often causing the same 
to be audited in such manner, as may be found in 

29. The Committee of Managers will appoint an 
European Secretary and Native Assistant Secretaiy 
who shall also be superintendents of the CoH^e, 
under the direction and control of the Committee. 
The appointment and removal of Teachers and all 
other officers whom it may be necessary to employ in 
any department of the College, shall be vested in the 

30. The ordinarj' meeting of the Manners 
shall be on stated days and as often as. may be found 
necessary. When extraordinary meetings may be 
requisite, they shall be convened by the Secretaries. 
The attendance of at least three members shall be 
required to constitute a meeting on common occasions, 
and when a new rule or the abolition of an existing 
Rules is to be considered, notice shall be given to 
all the members or their Deputies in or near CalcutU, 
that a full attendance of the Committee may be 

31. All questions shall be determined by a majority 
of voices of those present. 

32. Any member of the Committee who from 
not residing in Calcutta or its vicinity or from any 
other cause ' may be unable to attend its meetings in 

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peraon, may, by a letter addressed to the Secretary, 
appoint a fit person, residing in Calcutta or its 
suburbs to act as his Deputy, and. such person 
if approved by the Committee shall be entitled to 
attend its meeting and vote on all questions before 
it in like manner as the Member represented by 

33. There shall be an Annual General Meeting 
of the Subscribers at which a report shall be made to 
them of the state of the funds and progress of the 

Note The subscriptions that were made according 
to the rule laid down amounted in the aggregate 
to 70,000 rupees,' of which the Rajah of Burdwau 
and Baboo Gopeemohon Tagore contributed 10,000 
rupees each and the rest was principally 
subscribed by Baboo s Joykissen Sing, Gunga 
Naryan Dass, Radhamadhob Banerjea, Gopee- 
mobon Deb, Ram DoHal Sircar, and several other 
native or European gentlemen, a correct list of whose 
names unfortunately has not been preser\'ed in the 
College Records. At a meeting held on the 1 1th June 
1816, the European members withdrew from an active 
participation in the management of the College 
desiring only to be considered as private friends to the 
scheme and as ready to aflbrd their advice and 
assistance when consulted. In December 1816 
such subscribers as were qualified to act as members 
under the rules, assembled as a Managing 
Committee at the residence of Sir. E. H. East — they 

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as follows :— Baboo Gopeemohun Tagore 

Baboo Gopee Mohon Deb 
„ Joyltissen Singh 
„ Kadhamadhob Banerjee 
„ Gunganarain Dass 



By Baboo Kissory Chand Mittra. 

Baboo Ramgofaul Ghose and Gentlemen. 

The Hare Anniversary, with the Hare Prize Fund, 
may now be fairly considered an institution and one 
too of which we may well be proud. As it originated 
with the humble individual who stands before you and 
was inaugurated in his dwelling house, he naturally 
feels proud and happy in being thus permitted to 
address you on this the twentieth Anniversary of 
David Hare's death. 

Sir, I have selected for my theme the Hindoo 
College, not only because it is the most imperishable 
monument of that philanthropy which we are now 
assembled to commemorate but because its history is 
emphatically the history of progress. It is the history 
of a constant movement of the Hindoo mind, and 
of a constant change in the venerable institutions 
and immemorial customs of our society. We see 

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the Hindoo social fabric at the beginning of thii 
century in a miserable state. We see it based on 
a debasing and cruel superstition, and supported 
by the power of a handful of Brahmins. We see 
caste separating class from class and dominating over 
all. We see the whole body of the people sunk 
in a state of mental and reh'gious bondage. In 
the course of half a century, the strongholds of a 
superstition, which had exercised boundless dominion 
over even the most elevated minds among the Hindoos, 
have been stormed and rendered untenable. The 
Hindoo College and the educational institutions of 
which it has been the great precursor, have been too 
strong for the Shastras, and the geographical, astro- 
nomical, and historical truths inculcated there, have 
left behind Manu's dogma of Biahminical supremacy 
and demolished the gigantic tortoise which the Hindoo 
cosmogony makes the substratum of the earth. 
But I must not anticipate the effect before describing 
the cause. After many years spent in the educational 
experiment — after the establishment and extension 
of a national system of education, the time is at 
length arrived, when we are called upon to review its 
origin and progress, and to ascertain whether the 
success of the earliest friends of native improvement, 
have realised all reasonable hopes, and the results 
have been commensurate with the favorable commen- 

The history of the Hindoo College is so intimately 
connected with that of the institutions whiUi imme- 


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diately preceded it that an exposition in respect to the 
one must necessarily embrace that of the Others. 

The first educational institution on European model 
established in Bengal is the Madrissa and was founded 
in 1780 by the first Governor General^ The object 
of its institution was to impart an Arabic education to 
the Mahomedan youth. Warren Hastings provided 
for it a building at his own expense and assigned a 
Jagheer yielding an annual revenue of 29.000 Rs. for 
its maintenance. Four years later, another College 
was established and endowed by the Government at 
Benares for the cultivation of Sanskrit literature. This 
was done at the suggestion of the Resident Mr, 
Jonathan Duncan, who expected it would furnish the 
future doctors and expounders of Hindoo law who 
would assist European Judges "in the due, regular and 
uniform administration of its genuine letter and spirit 
to the body of the people." In 1811, Government 
resolved to found two new Colleges in Nuddea and 
Tirhoot. The resolution proceeded from a desire to 
give encouragement to the cultivation of oriental 
literature and science, but it was not carried out. 
Various difficulties arose and it failed of eiFect. A 
different plan was afterwards adopted. A new convi- 
ction dawned on the minds of the Governer General 
and his Councillors that, provincial colleges like those 
contemplated would not answer the purpose so well as 
a college at the Presidency. Its establishment at the 
seat of Government would secure an eflciency of 
supervision, which could not be obtained in the 

Mofussil. But it was some time till his intention was 
carried out and the Sanskrit College was established 
in Calcutta with an annual revenue of 30, 000 Rs. 
The attention of Government was at this time directed 
to the efforts of a few right-minded and right-bea:ted 
individuals to disseminate among the natives the 
blessings of an English education. 

Chinsurah proved one of the sources whence flowed 
the stream of knowledge. In that locality Mr. May, 
residing as a dissenting Missionary with a narrow 
income, gave an impulse to it, which carried it On- 
wards. In July 1814, he opened in his dwelling-house 
a school for the purpose of teaching gratuitously 
reading, writing and arithmetic. On the first day, 
sixteen boys attended, but on the second month, the 
number of pupils increased so as to require larger 
accomodation. A spacious apartment was alloted to 
him in the Old Dutch fort by Mr. Forbes, the Com- 
missioner of the district. In January 1815, Mr. May 
Opened a branch or village school at a short distance 
from the town, and in the course of twelve months, 
he had established in the surrounding country schools 
to which 951 boys resorted. These schools were 
conducted on the system which Dr. Bell had inaugu- 
rated in the Military Orphan Asylum of Madras in 
1791. While employed as superintendent of the 
Asylum, Dr. Bell observed one day a boy belonging 
to a Malabar school writing on sand according to 
the primitive Hindoo method. Believing this method 
very convenient both as regards cheapness and facility 

he introduced it in the school of the Asylum, but as 
the usher refused to carry it into eifect he employed 
one of the most promising senior boys of the school, 
to teach the juniors in this way. This system proved 
remarkably successful and Dr. Bell extended it to 
other and more advanced branches of instruction. la 
a short time, he recognised the school under boy tutors, 
who were themselves instructed by him, Mr. May's 
success was in a great measure attributed to the 
adoption of this monitorial method. It was soon 
brought to the notice of Government by Mr, Commi- 
ssioner Forbes, and a monthly grant of Rs. 600 was 
awarded to enable Mr, May to prosecute his under- 
taking. The general system of education thus initiated 
in Chinsurah found warm supporters in the higher 
classes of the natives. Rajah Tejchunder Bahadoor 
of Burdwan converted his Pathshalla into an English 
school, and another Zeminder followed his example. 
The strength of prejudice against English schools, 
rapidly diminished. At first a Brahmin scholar would 
not sit on the same form with a Koybun ora Sudgope, 
but the objection was afterwards relinquished. The 
Government, recognizing in the increased usefulness 
and full success of Mr. May's experimental instruc- 
tion, enlarged its monthly donation to Rs. 850. The 
name of this benevolent missionary, like the names of 
several other benefactors of our species, is now 
forgotten but the good he has done is remembered 
and chronicled by the recording angel, and constitutes 
in itself its sufficient reward. In Calcutta Mr. 

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Sherburn established a School, whidi claims for its 
children some of our ditinguished men of whom the 
late Baboo Dwarkanath Tagore and his amiable 
brother and my respected friend Baboo Ramanath 
Tagore may be mentioned. It was now evident that 
Our countrymen had commenced shaking off their 
quasi religious prejudices against English education, 
and manifested an eagerness to receive its benefits, 
when communicated in accordance with those principles 
of reason, discretion and good faith, which the 
Government uniformly promulgated. Availing himself 
of this altered state of feeling, David Hare, a retired 
watchmaker, urged on the leading members of the 
Native community to consider the necessity and 
importance of establishing a great seat of learning in 
the metropolis. They listened to this proposal with 
unfeigned interest and promised it their hearty support. 
They willingly accepted an invitation from Sir Edward 
Hyde East, the then Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court, to meet at his residence for the purpose of 
adopting measures for carrying it into effect. The 
preliminary meeting was held in May 1816, in the 
same house (Old Post Office Street) which was lately 
occupied by Chief Justice Colvile, and which is now 
tenanted by Messrs. Allen Judge and Banerjee, and 
a conclave of other lawyers. Among those who did 
not attend this preliminary meeting, was one who 
nevertheless shared with David Hare, the credit of 
Originating the idea of the institution of the Hindoo 
College, almost from its inception, and whose name 

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will be therefore inseparably associated with its found- 
ation. As a moral and religious reformer, Rammohun 
Roy had, from a very early period, fell the imperative 
necessity of imparting a superior English education to 
his countrymen as the best and most efficacious means 
of achieving his end. He had established an English 
School at his own expense. He had heartily entered 
into the plans of David Hare, and zealously aided in 
their development. But as an uncompromising enemy 
of Hindoo idolatry, he had incurred the hostility of 
his orthodox countiyraen, and he apprehended that his 
presence at the preliminary meeting might embarrass 
its deliberations, and probably defeat its object. And 
he was not mistaken- Some of the native gentlemen, 
the representatives of Hindooism, actually toM Sir 
Hyde East, that they would gladly accord their support 
to the proposed College if Rammohun Roy were not 
connected with it, but they would have nothing to do 
with that apostate ! Rammohun Roy willingly allowed 
himself to be laid aside lest his active co-operation 
should mar the accorapHshment of the project, saying — 
"If my connection with the proposed college, should 
injure its interests, I would resign all connection." 
The arrangements for the establishment of the Maha- 
bidyalya or great seat of learning as the Hindoo 
College was originally called having been completed, 
it was inaugurated in 1816, The house on the Upper 
Chitpore Road, known as Gorrachand Bysack's house 
and now occupied by the Oriental Seminary, was its 
first local habitation. It was afterwards removed to 

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Firinghee Komul Bosc's house at Jorasanko. The 
object of the institution as described in the printed 
rules published in 1822, was to "instruct the sons of 
the Hindoos in the European and Asiatic languages 
and sciences." Though it was proposed to teach 
English, Persian, Sanskrit and Bengali, yet tliC first 
place in importance was assigned to English. In 
truth the College was founded for the purpose of 
supplying the growii^ demand for English education. 
Sanskrit was discontinued at an early period. The Per- 
sian class was abolished in 1S41. The only languages 
which have since been taught are English' and Bengalee. 
Ample provision was made in the infancy of the 
institution for efficient supervision. At first a provi- 
sional committee, consisting Of ten Europeans and 
twenty Native Gentlemen, was formed to organize a 
plan of Operation. Subsequently the Europeans with- 
drew and a body of Directors was appointed consisting 
entirely of Natives with two Governors and two 
Secretaries. The Rajah Tejchunder Bahadur, and 
Baboo Chunder Coo mar Tagore was elected the 
first Governors in consideration of their having contri- 
buted most liberally for the support of the institution. 
Among the Native Directors may be mentioned 
Baboos Gopee Mohun Deb, Joykissen Singh and 
Gunganarain Doss. Baboo Buddinath Mookerjee was 
appointed the first Native Secretary. The European 
Secretary was Major Irving. He was appointed for 
the special purpose of superintending the English 
d^artment of the College. 

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The Committee of Management consisted for some 
years of four Members elected annually by the Direc- 
tors. Their duties were to see that the rules of the 
Institution were observed ; to alter and make new 
rules, to consult the requirements of the institution, 
to appoint and dismiss the teachers and to check and 
regulate the expenditure. When the opinion of 
the Members were equally balanced, the question was 
referred to one of the Governors whose decision was 

At the commencement, the sum of 1, 13, 179 rupees 
was contributed for the support of the institution. 
For several years after its establishment, the College 
was strictly a private institution and received no aid 
whatever from Government. But in 1823, the funds 
being at a low ebb, the Managers applied to Govern- 
ment for pecuniary aid and also for a suitable building. 
They ventured to suggest that the College should be 
removed to the vicinity of the Sanskrit College about 
to be founded, and that the more expensive paraphar- 
nalia of instruction, such as philosophical apparatus, 
lectures, &c., should be common to both institutions 
by which means they would be a mutually benefited. 
In the following year, the managers made a similar 
representation to the General Committee of Public 
Instruction. They adverted to the inadequacy of the 
income to the wider objects of the Institution and 
requested to be albwed to occupy part of the building 
designed for the Sanskrit College. They be^ed that 
such further pecuninary aid might be aifordcd as 

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would enable them to employ a person to give instruc- 
tion to the senior students. They also desired that 
the General Committee would be pleased lo permit 
their own Secretary, and the Secretary of the contem- 
plated Sanskrit College, to join them in the manage- 
ment of affairs of the College. 

These representations were attended with the 
desired effect. Government resolved to aid the Hindoo 
College by endowing at the public charge a professor- 
ship of experimental philosophy, and by supplyng the 
cost of school accommodation in tlie vicinity of the 
Sanskrit Collie. The General Committee were desired 
to report on the expediency of assuming "a certain 
degree of authoritative control over the concerns of 
that institution in return for the pecuniary aid now 
proposed to be afforded." 

In conformity with this resolution, the General 
Committee opened a communication with the Mana- 
gers in regard to the question of obtaining a share in 
the control of the College. 

The subjoined is an extract from the Genera' 
Committee's letter : "With reference to the extent of 
aid already given to the funds of the Hindoo College 
and other arrangements in contemplation for its 
improvement, such as the grant of a library, endow- 
ment of scholarships and a liberal provision for the 
most effective superintendence that can be obtained, 
the expense of which will probadly be fully three 
times the amount now derived from the funds of the 
College, Government conceive that a proportional 


share of authority over that establishment should be 
vested in the General Committee of Public Instruction." 

The Managers, in replying to this letter, and with 
reference to the share of the management they were 
willing to surrender, desired to be informed what 
arrangements the General Committee themselves 
would consider most advisable. They then added the 
following observations : 

"With defence to what may be the decision of the 
General Committee, we beg to suggest that probably 
the best mode of appointing the management, w6uld 
be the appointment of a joint Committee, to consist of 
an equal number of the present. Native Managers and 
of the Members of the General Committee to which 
arrangement we shall be very happy to agree. 

"It is scarcely to be apprehended that any questions 
arise in which the opinions of the Native and European 
Managers would be exactly balanced, but should such 
an event occur, we hope it will not be considered 
unreasonable in us to propose that a negative voice 
may be allowed to the Native Managers, that is to say, 
that any measure to which the Natives express an 
unanimous objection, shall not be carried into effect." 

The following reply which closed the corres- 
pondence, was returned by the General Committee : 

''The General Committee in professing to exercise 
any authority over the Hindu College, have only 
had in view the due administration of those funds 
which the Government may from time to time be 
disposed to supply in aid of the Institution, and the 


erection of the Hindu College into a Seminary of the 
highest possible description for the cultivation of the 
Ei^Iish language. Beyoiid these objects, it is not 
their intention to interfere, and as long as they are 
satisfied tliat tbe best interests of the establishment 
are fully attended to by the Native Management, they 
will not fail to take a warm interest in the prosperity 
of the College, and to recommend it to Government 
as meriting the countenance of it. At present tbey 
have no reason to doubt the efficiency nor the intention 
of the Native Committee, and they do not therefore 
think it advisable to assume any share in the direction 
of the details of the College. 

"At the same time, confiding in the disposition 
evinced by the Native management to accept their 
assistance and advice, the Genera) Committee will be 
leady to exercise a regular inspection and supervising 
control as Visitors of the College. 

"Iq order to render the general supervision as 
practicable as possible, they propose to exercise it 
through the medium of such of their members as they 
may frOm time to time appoint ; and on the present 
occasion, they avail themselves of the services of 
their Secretary Mr. Wilson, whom they request the 
Managers to regard as the organ and representative of 
the General Committee. 

"It is expected that any recommendation proceeding 
from the General Committee relative to the conduct 
of the Institution as expressed through the acting 
Visitor, will meet with the concurrence of the 

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Managers o the College, unless sufficient reason be 
submitted in writing for declinii^ such concurrence." 

The Managers expressed their readiness to conform 
to these atrangements for the management of the 
College. Subsequently Dr. Wilson was elected Vice- 
President of the Committee of management. 

Dr. Wilson entered On his duties as the Visitor of 
the College in a proper spirit. He brought to their 
performance a tact, a judgment and zeal, which soon 
worked a marked improvement in the institution- In 
his first annual Report, he represented the low state 
of the funds, threatening to "cripple" the College, 
and ui^ed on the Government to devise some means 
by which the calamity might be averted. He also 
lamented the want of sufficient control and the 
"neglect into which for the last two years the institu- 
tion had fallen." He however expressed his earnest 
hope that now that the attention of the Government 
was drawn to the proceedings of the Managers of the 
College, and that "as long as they continue to merit 
they may hope for its patronage," they would be 
anxious to promote any measures that may have the 
advantage of the College in view. There was there- 
fore every prospect in his opinion that the College, 
controlled by the General Committee and patronized 
by the Government, will become the "main channel 
by which knowledge may be transferred from its 
European source into the intellect of Hiodostan." 
That this prospect has since been realized, you will 
all cheerfully admit. 


XXI 11 

Dr. Wilson's report raised the question of the 
establishment of a distinct College open to Natives of 
every denomination. Mr, Holt Mackenzie advocated 
an independent institution. Mr. Haiington, the 
President of the General Committee, considered it 
was highly desirable to give every possible encourage- 
ment to the Hindoo College, so as to render it as 
efficient as possible. Dr. Wilson was for not establish- 
ing a separate institution, and thought it would be 
more advisable to improve the existing Hindoo College 
by raising the character of the institution, providing 
a superior class of teachers, and bringing it within 
the supervision of the General Committee. 

The majority of the committee being in favor of 
a separate institution, a report recommending its 
establishment, was forwarded to Govermnent. But 
their views, though acquiesced in by the Government, 
were not carried into effect. 

It must be now observed that the reduced subs- 
cribed capital was about this time still further reduced 
to little more than 20,000 Rs. by the failure of J. 
Baretto, in whose firm it was deposited. After a 
delay of two years, the Managers received 21,000 Rs. 
Out of the wreck of the estate. In 1824, the monthly 
income of the College amounted to 840 Rs., made up 
of the following items : 

Interest of the College Fund Rs. 300 

Tuition Fees „ 350 

School Society's Scholars „ 150 

Godown Rent „ 40 

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■ At that time the state of the College resembled 
that of our Government before Mr. Laing had balanced 
its income and expenditure. The Managers went 
up to Government for assistance, which they obtained 
in the firat instance to the extent of 300 rupees a 
month. To 1827, the Government aid was raised to 
900 rupees a month, which had again risen in 1830 
to 1,250 rupees a month. Besides these regular 
monthly contributions. Government in 1829 made a 
large grant for the publication of English class books, 
and gave a further sura of 5,000 rupees to purchase 
books for the library- 

The library was always largely and eagerly 
resorted to by the boys. The books borrowed by them 
show a great love of desultory reading, which after 
all is according to ^Dr. Johnson not so unprofitable 
as is generally supposed. 

In the mean time, the amount realized from tuition 
fees had also progressively increased. In January 
1827, the monthly income of the College amounted 
to 2,240 rupees, of which 1,000 rupees came under the 
head of tuition fees. In 1830 the total monthly 
income had risen to 3,272 rupees, of which about 
15,000 rupees were raised from tuition fees. After 
that time there was a gradual falling off in the receipts 
from this source for several years, but the deficit was 
made up by Government. 

The College began with a small number of pupils, 
Though the original rules of the institution provided 
for the payment of schoohng fees by students, yet the 


system of demanding their payment did not at first 
answer ; the committee of Management accordingly 
resolved that from the 1st January 1819, the College 
should be a free institution. It was not till the 
end of 1S23 that twenty-five pay scholars had 
been admitted, payii^ altogether 125 rupees monthly. 
In June 1825 the nun^er of paying scholars had 
risen to 70, and the monthly receipts from this source 
was 350 rupees. At the end of the year the number 
of pupils was 110, and at the end of the following 
year it was 223. The number of paying scholars 
continued to increase during the next two years. At 
the end of 1827 the number was about 300; and in 
December 1828 it had increased to 336. It was 
remarked that now the readiness to pay schooling 
fees was strikingly contrasted with the reluctance 
formerly displayed, and which had rendered it neces- 
sary to abrogate the provision which originally existed 
for the admission of pay scholars. At the end of 
1826, Ihe monthly receipts from tuition fees amounted 
to 1,115 rupees, and two years later to 1,700 rupees. 
After this there was a falling off, occasioned partly 
by a temporary panic and partly by the commercial 
distress which existed at that time. At the end of 
1833, the tuition fees had fallen off to 800 rupees 
8 mootb. Since then there was a gradual increase, 
until the sum annually raised from tuition fees alone 
amounted to 30,000 rupees. 

The rate charged continued for many years to be 
the same for all the classes both seoior and junior. 

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A flxcd sum of S rupees a month was levied from all. 
A few years ago, it was determined to enhance the 
fees in the h^her classes. Since then, the rate was 
raised to 8 rupees a mOnth Jn the College department, 
6 rupees in senior school, and 5 rupees in the junior 
school. It is to be observed, however, that a large 
proportion of the students of the College department 
were scholarship-holders, who paid nothing. * 

In 1840 the contribution of Government to the 
College amounted to rupees 30,000. It also com- 
menced from this time taking a more active interest 
in the affairs of the College through the Committee 
of PubKc IiLStruction. Macaulay, Sir Edvrard Ryan 
and Mr, Charles Hay Cameron who were successively 
Presidents of the Committee, took an active part in 
its administration. They visited the college, laid 
down its curriculum, conducted the annual Exami- 
nations and effected several organic changes. Their 
exertions for the improvement of the College are 
beyond all praise. The interference of the Committee 
of Public Instruction, afterwards metamorphosed 
into the Council of Education, went further than was 
■ I have not trusted to my recollection for these detailt, 
I Lave cousulted the original records of tUe College, and 
compared with tliem the statements contained in Mr, Kerr's 
Sefietf of Public Instruction. My grateful acknowledgements, 
are due to Baboo Prosono Coomar Tagore, the last Governor 
of the College, and Baboo Hurru -Mohun Chatterjee, ■ 
Assistant Secretary of that Institution, for kindly furnisiag 
me with a considerable portion of the information regarding 
its early history, 


perhaps warranted by their const itution. They assumed 
functions which the native managers of the College 
contended rightfully bdoiiged to them. This collision 
of authority taised the general question of the re- 
organisation of the man^ement of the College. In 
1844 a conference consisting of the leading members 
of the two bodies met for deciding this question. 
At this meeting the native members agreed to with- 
draw their connection with the College in consideration 
of the Government undertaking to enlarge and 
improve it. In consequence of the decision thus 
come to, the Hindoo College as such was abolished 
but only in name. The junior department exists in 
the shape of the Hindoo School, and the senior depart- 
ment is represented by the Presidency College of 
which it formed the neucleus. 

An account of the Hindoo College would be in- 
complete if I were to omit noticing in connection 
with it the Calcutta School Society, and Jt& schools. 
Both the institutions acted and reacted on each other 
most beneficially. The Society was instituted on 
the 1st September 1818, for the purpose of "assisting 
and improving existing institution and preparing 
select pupils of distinguished talents by superior 
instruction before becoming Teachers and Instructors," 

The Calcutta School Society was placed under the 
control of a managing committee composed of 24 
members of whom 16 were Europeans and 8 
natives. The following gentlemen were its first 

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Sir Anthony BuIIer, President, J. H. Harii^ton 
and J. P. Larkins, Vice Presidents, J Baretto- 
Treasurer, S. Lagrundye, Collector, David Hare, 
European Secretary and Baboo (now Rajah) Radhakant 
Deb, Native Secretary. 

To ensure the due fulfilment of the object of the 
Society, the committee divided themselves into three 
sub-committees for the distinct prosecution of the 
three principal plans one for ihe establishmet and 
support of a limited number of regular Schools, an- 
other for the aiding and improving the indigenous 
schools or Patsallahs of the country, and the third 
for the education of a select number of pupils in 
English and in some higher branches of tuition. At 
the end of the first year, the donations amounted to 
about ten thousand. The resources thus munificiently 
supplied, enabled the society to commence its opera- 
tions in right earnest. It established two regular, 
or as they were termed, 'nominal' schools rather to 
improve by serving as models than to supersede the 
existing institutions of the country. They were 
designed to educate children of parents unable or 
rather unwilling to pay for their instruction. At 
thai time education was not so much appreciated as 
now and the Society was perfectly right in giving 
gratuitous instruction. Though I readily admit that 
as a rule education must be paid for, because it would 
be otherwise but little prized, yet where there is no 
demand for it, demand must be created. This con- 
summation was brought about by the School Society s 

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schools. Both the Tuntuneah and the Champatollah 
Schools were attended with remarkable success. The 
former was situated On the Comwallis Street nearly 
opposite the temple of Kalli and consisted of a Beng- 
allee and English department. The latter was held in 
the house now occupied by Baboo Bhoobun Mobun 
Mttler's School and which was entirely an English 
School. The two schools were amalgamated at the 
end of 1834. The amalgamated school was known 
as David Hare's School and is now called the Colloo- 
tollah Branch School. It has always served as an 
intermediate link between the independent schools 
fostered by the Calcutta School Society, and the 
Hindoo College. The most promising pupils from it, 
were sent to the Hindoo College to be educated at 
the Society's expense. The number always amounted 
to thirty. Tbese pupils invariably proved the most 
distii^uished and took the shine out of their fellow 
collegians. They carried almost all the honors and 
shed greater lustre on the College than what was 
reflected by its "pay" students. This fact is easily 
accounted for by their comparative poverty, their 
habits of industry acquired in the preparatory school 
and the stimulus held out to them in the shape of 
prizes and scholarships. They were the picked boys 
of a well conducted High School. They had already 
risen above their compeers in that school and acquired 
a love for study. Whereas the majority of the 
foundation and "pay" scholars of the College, were 
the sons of wealthy men who had been cradled in the 

lap of luxury. No wonder therefore, that these 
Sybarites were unable to rub shoulders with the 
sturdy "Boreahs," (as Hare's boys were derisively 
called ) who had been taught to look to collegiate 
proficiency as the only passport to wealth and 

Thus fostered and recruited, the Hindoo College 
became a mighty instrument for improvii^ and 
elevating the Hindoos. It was, as has been said, 
inaugurated in a small building on the Upper Chitpore 
Road, and commenced with a small number of 
scholars but it soon grew into importance and useful- 
ness. The College was divided into two departments, 
the senior and the junior, These were situated in 
different apartments, but were under the controlling 
authority of one Head Master. Mr. D'nsellem was 
the first Head Master and served long and well in 
that capacity. He evinced considerable tact and 
judgment in the management of boys. It 1827, 
Mr. Henry Vivian Derozio was appointed Assistant 
Master in the Senior Department. I thus prominently 
notice his appointment, because it opened up, sb to 
speak, a new era in the annals of the College. His 
career as an educator was marked by singular success. 
His appreciation of the duties of a teacher was higher 
and truer than that of the herd of professors and 
schoolmasters. He felt it his duty as such to teach 
not only words but things, to touch not only the 
head but the heart. He sought not to cram the mind 
but to inoculate it with large and liberal ideas. Act- 

ingon his principle, he opened the eyes of his pupils' 
understanding. He taught them to think, and to 
throw off the fetters of that antiquated bigotry which 
still clung to* their countrymen. He possessed a 
profound knowledge of mental and moral philosophy 
and imparted it to them. Gifted with great penetra- 
tion, he led them through the pages of Locke and 
Reid, Stewart and Brown. He brought to bear on 
his lectures great and original powers of reasoning 
and observation which would not have disgraced the 
late lamented Sir Willian Hamilton. But it was not 
only in the class room that he laboured for the in- 
terests of his pupils. He delighted to meet them in 
his own house, in debating clubs, and other places 
and to pour out to them the treasures of his cultivated 
mind. He was nOt a fluent but an impressive 
speaker, what he said was suggestive and contained 
bone and sinew. The native managers of the College 
cradled in superstition, were alarmed at the progress 
which Derozio's pupils were making by actually 
"cutting their way," as one of the newspapers of the 
day not inaptly expressed it, "through ham and beef 
and wading to liberalism through tumblers of beer." 
Like many other enlightened men of other enlightened 
times, they could not rise above the prejudices of the 
nursery and see, in the innovating spirit of the 
Collegians, aught but an element of danger to their 
country. They were therefore, naturally scandalized 
at their heterodoxy and attempted to put it down by 
dismissing Mr. Derozio. But the seed which had 

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been sown had germinated and developed into a 
stately tree and was to bear goodly fruit. 'The 
Jesuits," says Pascal in one of his unparalleled 
letters, "have obtained a papal decree condemning 
Galileo's doctrine about the motion of the 
earth. It is all in vain. If the world is really 
turning round, all mankind together will not be able 
to keep it from turning or to keep themselves from 
turning with it." The order of the College Committee 
for the dismissal of Mr. Derozio, was as effectual 
to stay the great moral revolution as the decree of 
the Vatican to stay the motion of our globe. Onward 
shall it roll through the country like the aChancing 
flood of the Ganges bearing truth and religion in its 
resistless course. Progress is the law of God and 
cannot be arrested by the puny eflforts of man. As 
knowledge is acquired, facts accumulate and gener- 
alization is practised, scepticism arises and engenders 
a spirit of enquiry. Faint glimpses of the truth 
begin to appear and illuminate into midday. The 
youthful band of reformers who had been educated 
at the Hindoo College, like the tops of the Khan- 
chungunga, were the first to catch and reflect the 
dawn. But the light which had first illuminated the 
tops of mountains, has since descended on the plains 
and will, I devoutely trust, soon penetrate to the 
deepest valley and the lowest rice field. The earliest 
Hindoo Collegians of whom you, Baboo Ram Gopaul, 
were one and not the least distinguished one cither, 
were Our pioneers and the first to rebel gainst their 


spiritual guides and summon Hindooism to the bar 
of their reason. They were the first to go into the 
breach and carry the ramparts. They felt and they 
asserted in their lives that, what is morally wrong, 
cannot be theologically right. The foundations of 
the fabric thus opened and examined, and its out- 
works, thus sapped, seemed to be lottering to their 
fall. India, which had been buried so long under 
the ashes of prejudice, seemed to be overtaken by a 
new resurrection and to be casting about to rise on 
her feet. . 

In this state of excitement and change a few of 
our reformers gave some unmistakable signs of their 
renunciation of Hindooism which enlisted against 
them the rancorous hostility of their orthodox 
brethem- But where have the reformers and im- 
provers of their country been suffered to enjoy ease 
and cOmfort by the Patrons of Error. When has an 
opposition to popular prejudices, been disossociated 
with difficulty and trouble ? But the difficulty and 
trouble were happily considered by our reformers 
neither very formidable nor very intolerable. To 
excommunication and its concomitant evils, our 
friends were subjected but they easily managed to 
survive them and their example ought to be imitated 
by the rising generation. Conformity to the idola- 
trous practices and customs evince a weak desertion 
of principle. Nonconformity to them On the other 
hand is a moral obligation which we owe to our 
consciences. I therefore call on all educated nat'' 

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to recollect that all religions must be reformed from 
within and that the great changes which at intervals 
have been carried out in the religious belief of the 
people of his country have all arisen from among 
the people themselves. I call on them to exalt 
themselves to the dignity of reformers and regenera- 
tors of their country by combating false opinions and 
currupt customs. 

For the progress which this moral revolution 
made, we are chiefly indebted to the tact and 
judgment, prudence and discretion of David Hare. 

It was not in the sense of direct teaching or 
class lecturing that he was useful. He was never- 
theless an educator and reformer in the truest signi- 
ficatiOD of the words. He closely watched and 
directed the exertions of the masters, and identified 
himself with the progress of the boys. He mixed 
freely and daily with the latter. He sympathized with 
their joys and sorrows. He participated in their 
amusements, listened to their complaints, gave them 
advice and assisted them in obtaining situations or 
chalking out independent lines of business. He 
tempered their zeal with discretion, and dissuaded 
them from undertaking rash innovations. He taught 
them to proceed in the work of refonn with judg- 
ment and prudence- Though not a man of extensive 
learning, yet he vras generally well informed. His 
simplicity and sincerity were remarkable, and enabled 
him to exercise unlimited influence over the 

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But before proceeding to delineate the character 
of this uncommon man, I should wish to draw your 
attention to a question which now suggests itself, viz ; 
Whether the education imparted at the Hindoo 
College has realized its object ? There are those who 
condemn it as irreligious, and suggest the introduc- 
duction of the Bible as a class-book. I do not desire, 
Sir, to raise the vexed question of religious instruc- 
tion, but while I am deeply impressed with the 
necessity and importance of moral and religious 
culture, I am compelled to vote against this sugges- 
tion as both unwise and impracticable. I conceive 
that the Government is bound both in the reason of 
things and by its plet^e given to its native subjects, 
to conduct the Education of their subjects on the 
present principle. I cannot admit the charge preferred 
against the system pursued in the Hindoo College 
by certain parties that it takes no account of the 
spiritual element in man. I emphatically deny that 
it is calculated to make only secularists. It has 
brought to those who have come within the range of 
its influence inestimable moral and religious benefits. 
It has taught them great truths not only respecting 
men, their histories, their polhics, their inventions, 
and their discoveries, but respecting God, His 
attributes and His moral Government. U has 
revealed to them the laws which the Almighty 
Mechanician has impressed on the world of mind 
as well as on the world of matter. Let me not be 
told therefore that the expansion of the mind and 

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thought which is going on around us is not accom- 
panied by an expansion of the heart — ^the develop- 
ment of the moral and religious feclii^s. Nothing 
can be more unfair than to characterize the Govern- 
ment system of education as it is characterized by 
certain parties as an irreligious or a non-rcligious 
system. No system can be such which leads us 
through nature up to nature's God. The elements 
of morality and religion may be conveyed indepen- 
dently of any system of dogmatic theology. It is 
impossible to study Shakespeare and Milton, Bacon 
and Newton, Johnson and Addison, without beibg 
inoculated with the purest moral precepts and the 
most elevated ideas pervading their pages. These 
must touch the religious instinct in man and awaken 
his religious sympathies. I am opposed to the intro- 
duction of the Bible as a class book not only because 
we want the necessary agency for its exposition, 
but because such a measure is directly opposed to 
the non- interference policy repeatedly affirmed and 
recognized by the Government. It will also intro- 
duce a state-church element into the relations of 
the Government with the people, which would be 
highly prejudicial lo the healthy development of 
true religion in the land. I hold that the State should 
have no connection which religion as the inevitable 
and invariable result of such connection is to de-spirit- 
ualize the spiritual instinct by an admixture of the 
secular principles. This is amply evidenced by the 
history of Europe. The secularization of the woriiing 

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classes in England, which is going on there at a 
fearful rate, would afford, if necessary, an additional 
illustration of my position. 

To return to David Hare. He was appointed 
Visitor of the Hindoo College in 1824, to his 
unceasing exertions on behalf of that institution, 
both before and after his appointment, the Committee 
of Public Instruction bore the following weighty 
testimony : — 

"The General Committee think it right to call the 
particular attention of Government to the merits of 
this benevoleni: individual. Of all who take an interest 
in native eduction, Mr. Hare was, they believe, the 
first in the field. His exertions essentialy contributed 
to induce the Native inhabitants of the Capital to 
cultivate the English lai^uage, not as before to the 
slight extent necessary to carry on business with 
Europeans, but as the most convenient channel by 
which access was to be obtained to the science 
of the West. He assisted in the formation of the 
School Society and of the Hindoo College ; and 
he has year after year patiently superintended the 
the growth of those Institutions, devoting to this 
object not a portion only but the whole of his time. 
He is constantly present as the encourager of the 
timid, the adviser of the uninformed, the affectionate 
reprover of the idle or bad. Disputes among the 
students are frequently referred to him, and he is 
often called upon as the mediator between father and 
child. The General Committee think he is entitled 


to some recompense from the public , and tnist 
his Lordship in Council will take it into serious 
consideration, not only out of regard to Mr. Hare's 
claims, but also with a view to mark the light in which 
efforts like his for the intellectual and moral im- 
provement of the people, are considered by the 
Government of India. They think there will be no 
fear of establishing an inconvenient precedent. Few 
will be found, like Mr. Haie to bestow years of un- 
remitting labour upon this object without any expecta- 
tion of reward, except what is \o be derived from 
the gratification of benevolent feeling." 

It was the mission of David Hare to redeem the 
natives from the slavery of superstition and ignorance. 
To its fulfilment, he consecrated his enei^ies, his 
time, his resources, his life. That the native was 
susceptible of the highest development, was his great 
idea and one that comes forth to us from his profes- 
sion and practice as a distinct and bright reality. To 
promote his moral and mental enlightenment, was his 
far-reaching aim. It is difficult for those who have 
not witnessed, as Sir, you and I have witnessed it, 
to realize the energy of his disinterested affection for 
our race. The poorest as well as the richest bOy 
was equally its object. He loved individual man ; 
for humanity was dear to him, not for its creed or 
color which unhappily constitutes the only test of 
the beneficence of so many of our Calcutta philan- 
thropists. No geographical or ethnological or social 
or other extraneous distinction extended or narrowed 

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his sympathies. He was completely above the pre- 
judices of caste and rank. A man was in his esti- 
mation worth more than his chupkan or shawl, his 
palkee or garee. He recognized his brother in the 
nigger — a brotherhood which, though established 
by the most indubitable evidence, is far from being 
universally felt or admitted and which requires the 
eloquence of our Chancellors of the Exchequer 
to enforce to the Anglo-Saxon. David Hare may 
be called the first European philanthropist in India 
who brought with him a new epoch even the epoch of 
philanthrophy. From his time, a new spirit has 
moved over the troubled water of Anglo-Indian 
society and will, I devoutly trust, move till it has 
evoked light Out of darkness and bound the Hindu 
and the European in a community of interests and 
hopes and aspirations. The interest David Hare felt 
in Native progress was as intense as his desire 
to promote it was ardent. It was a desire to 
carry to every native the means of rising to a 
better condition and higher enlightenment such as 
has never been witnessed before. Amidst the inter- 
loping mercenariness and avarice which would now 
degrade natives into hewers of wood and drawers 
of water and would trample upon their just rights, 
it is refreshing now to recall to mind his recognition 
of their rights and his thirst for their elevation- 

His whole nature had been "blended and melted 
into a strong and ardent love" for the Hindoo. He 
was distinguished by an overflowing but discriminate 

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benevolence and this prominent trait of his mind ' was 
embodied and brought out in his whole life and 
conduct. It beamed from his amiable countenance, 
he carried it everywhere — to fhe boittakhana of the 
Baboo, and fo the nautchghur of the Rajah, as well 
as to the hovel of the charity-boy, and the bedside 
of the fever-stricken Rajaling. He specially ex- 
pressed it in his labors in the promotion of native 
education. He was struck, such as no other man 
had before been struck with the evils of ignorance 
eating into the vitals of native society. He was 
impressed, such as nO Other man had before been 
impressed, with the duty of England to India. In 
the course of your experience, Sir, you will have ere 
this found that, every man is struck by some evils 
rather than others. This law of our nature is emin- 
ently conducive lo the welfare of society, inasmuch 
as it enables some One more than others to consecrate 
his efforts to the removal of such evils. Under its 
influence, one individual devotes himself to the 
suppression of suttee and another to the abolition of 
slavery. The excellent individual of whom I speak, 
was heartsmitten by nothing so much as that man 
■ should grovel in ignorance and superstition. The 
great evil on which his mind and heart were fixed, 
was moral and memal darkness. To dissipate that 
darkness — to disseminate that blessings of educatioD, 
became the object of his life. Under this impulse, he 
gave birth an impulse to the Hindoo College, the 
School Society's schools and several omer institutions. 

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The educational movement is to be traced to him 
above all other men, and his name, I feel assured, 
will go down to posterity with increasing veneration, 
as "the Father of Native Education," and the ''Apostle 
of Native Progress." 

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